A brief history of the development of three major paradigm of AI

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Lei feng’s network: author Dr Tomasz Malisiewicz,CMU. Introduced three major paradigm of AI: logic, probability and deep learning. iPhone wallet

Today, we work together to review the past 50 years of artificial intelligence (AI) formed the three paradigms in the field: logic, probability and deep learning. Now, whether by experience and “data-driven” approach, or big data, the concept of deep learning, have been popular, but early was not the case. Many of the early artificial intelligence is based on logic, and logic to a data-driven method of transition probability theory deeply affects thinking, then we will talk about the process.

According to chronological, first logic, and probability plots and make forecasts the future direction of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

A brief history of the development of three major paradigm of AI

Figure 1: Photo Coursera probabilistic graphical models

One, logic and algorithms (common-sense “thinking” machines)

Many early AI work is focusing on logic and automated theorem proving and the manipulation of symbols. John McCarthy in 1959, wrote a seminal paper called for common sense is homeopathy for the programming.

If we read one of the most popular AI textbooks–the artificial intelligence: a modern approach (AIMA), we will direct attention to the book begins is to search first-order logic, constraint satisfaction problems, and planning. Third edition cover (see the following figure) like a big chessboard (exquisite because chess is a sign of human intelligence), or printed with Alan Turing (father of computer theory) and Aristotle (one of the great classical philosophers, a symbol of wisdom) pictures.

A brief history of the development of three major paradigm of AI

Cover of 2:AIMA, which is standard in CS undergraduate AI courses teaching

However, based on logical AI cover the perception problem, and I have long advocated the principle of understanding perception is the key to solve the riddle of intelligence. Is aware that category for what is easy to machine and hard to grasp. (Further reading: is the computer vision AI, author of 2011 post) logic is pure, traditional chess robot is purely of algorithms, but the real world is ugly, dirty and filled with uncertainty.

I think most modern artificial intelligence researchers believe that AI is dead based on logic. Everything perfectly observed, the world does not exist error not a robot and the real world within the data. We live in an era of machine learning and digital technologies to defeat the first-order logic. In 2015, I am for those who defend ponens abandoned gradient fool are regret.

Explaining logic is suitable for use in the classroom, I wonder if there is sufficient awareness has become “essentially solved”, we will see the recovery logic. Cognition of the future there are many open questions, then there are a lot of scenes, in these situations the community won’t have is a perception problem, and started looking at these ideas. Maybe in the year 2020.

Second, probability, statistics and graphical models (“measure”)

Uncertainty of the probabilistic approach to artificial intelligence is used to solve the problem. Artificial intelligence: a modern approach to middle section of the book “uncertain knowledge and reasoning”, vividly describes these methods. If the first time you pick up the AIMA, I suggest that you read it from the beginning of this section. If you are a newcomer to AI students, do not save your work in mathematics.

iPhone leather wallet

A brief history of the development of three major paradigm of AI

Figure 3: from probability theory and mathematical statistics course at Penn State University’s PDF file

Most people referring to the probability method, just count. Laymen are easy to take for granted that probability is fancy counting method. We briefly review the past statistic methods of thinking about the same in both.

Frequency theory relies on experience–they are data-driven and rely purely on data inference. Bayesian methods are more complex, and it combines data-driven likelihood and prior. These a priori, often from first principles, or “intuition”, Bayesian methods are very good at getting the data combine to make more intelligent algorithms and heuristic thinking-the rationalist and empiricist world view of the perfect combination.

The most exciting, then the frequency theory and Bayesian, is something called probabilistic graphical models. This kind of technology from the field of computer science, machine learning is an important part of CS and statistics now, statistics and operations when combined with its powerful ability to truly release.

Probabilistic graphical model is a combination of graph theory and probability method, mid 2000 they were once the rage in a machine learning researchers. When I was in graduate school (2005-2011), calculus of variations, and Gibbs sampling and belief propagation algorithm was deeply implanted in the brain in the CMU graduate students and our thinking provides an excellent framework for machine learning problems. I know most of the knowledge about the model is from Carlos Guestrin and Jonathan Huang. Carlos Guestrin is now GraphLab Corporation (now renamed Dato) CEO, this company’s products are used in machine learning of image production. Jonathan Huang now is Google’s senior research fellow.

The video below is an overview of GraphLab, but it is also perfectly described “Visual thinking”, as well as modern data scientists how to use it. Carlos is an excellent lecturer, and his speech is not limited to the company’s products, more is to provide the next generation of machine learning system.

A brief history of the development of three major paradigm of AI

(Figure 4: calculation method of probabilistic graphical models | Professor Dato CEO,Carlos Guestrin)

If you feel that deep learning can solve all machine learning problems, I really have a good look at the video above. If you are building a recommender system, a health data analysis platform, the design of a new trading algorithm, or develop next-generation search engine, model is the perfect starting point.

Third, deep learning and machine learning (data-driven) iPhone leather wallet

Machine learning is a learning process, so the most advanced recognition technology requires a lot of training data, you should use the advanced neural network and are patient enough. Depth of learning stressed that successful machine learning algorithms of the network architecture. These methods are based on contains many hidden layers of “deep” multi-layer neural networks. Note: I would like to stress now is deep structure (2015) is no longer new. Just look at this 1998 paper “deep” structure of articles.

A brief history of the development of three major paradigm of AI

Figure 5:LeNet-5,Yann LeCun pioneering papers of the document recognition method based on gradient

When you read LeNet model Guide, see the following terms:

To run the sample on a GPU, you first need to have a good GPU. GPU memory at least 1GB. If the monitor is connected to the GPU, you might need more memory.

When the GPU and monitor are connected, each GPU function call has a few seconds of time. Doing so is essential, because the GPU when the operation cannot continue to monitor services. Without this limit, the display will freeze for too long, computers appear to be crashed. If the medium-quality GPU processing for this example, you will encounter problems over time. GPU not connected monitor does not exist at this time. You can reduce batch sizes to address time-out problems.

I really wonder how the Yann as early as 1998, the depth of his model to toss out some things. Not surprisingly, we guys have to take ten years to digest the contents.

Update: Yann said (via the Facebook comment) ConvNet work dating back to 1989. “It has some 400K connection, and a SUN4 machines spent approximately 3 weeks training on USPS data collection (8,000 sample). “——LeCun

A brief history of the development of three major paradigm of AI

Figure 6: the deep Web, Yann1989 years at Bell Labs

Note: about the same time (around 1998) California has two crazy guys in the garage trying to cache the entire Internet to their computers (who founded a company that begin with g). I don’t know how they do it, but I guess sometimes needs to be advanced do not scale to make great achievements. The world will eventually catch up.

Conclusion:

I don’t see a conventional first-order logic soon made a comeback. Although there is a lot of hype behind deep learning, distributed systems, and “graphic thinking” impact on the scientific data are more likely to share more far-reaching optimization of CNN. GraphLab-style architecture and deep learning is no reason not to, the coming decades major breakthroughs in the field of machine learning is likely to come from the combination of these two parts.

Lei feng’s network (search for “Lei feng’s network”, public interest) Note: by reading the article science and technology translation and authorized the released of Lei feng, for reprint, please contact authorized and keep the source and author, no deletion of content.

Nepal Bhutan a walk in the clouds dream trip travel best pictures

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Every time I travel there is a harvest: beautiful place, eat good food, meet like-minded friends. Greatest achievement–is found. There are a lot of people in the world, live in a variety of ways, they have different cultures, different values, so the world is complex and interesting, people who understand their sympathetic people who don’t understand their topic. Therefore, the trips not only to relax, but a discovery, discovery world, find themselves.

–This travel feeling.






Last year my cousin and I plan to go to Nepal Tourism, cattle in transit when selected tour online, found the Nepal and Bhutan tours between the two places. For the country of Bhutan, I think the name is familiar, others nothing. Search the Internet for a while know that the Kingdom of Bhutan (The Kingdom of the Bhutan), located in the eastern section of the Himalayas, it is one of the neighboring countries, sandwiched between China and India between the land area and Switzerland. Bhutanese call their country Zhu Yu, the “country of the Thunder Dragon”, so the image of the flag of Bhutan is a White Dragon. It is a constitutional monarchy, honest, scenery is spectacular, and Tibet is similar to that known as modern utopia, the last Shangri-La. Carina LAU and Tony Leung Chiu-Wai is the wedding in Bhutan, I was the first time I heard the name of Bhutan at the time.

In order to protect the environment, Bhutan does not allow free travel, even a person to go to, will also provide you with guides and drivers, escort. Bhutan and China currently has no diplomatic relations, there is no direct route. Travel to Bhutan only in Kathmandu, New Delhi, Calcutta, Dhaka, Bangkok, Yangon and other places to turn. Nepal, Kathmandu, is closest to Bhutan’s route.

Protection of national cultures and traditions of Bhutan, to the protection of the natural environment, make me to be good of the country, also inspired me a strong sense of curiosity. Although Nepal and Bhutan tour cost enough to go to Europe or the United States, made us struggle for a while, we finally decided to report a name.

Travel to Bhutan, currently belong to the popular line. So I have always had a hunch that this trip, not only my cousin and two people. Sure enough, based on the previous day, we received a notice above reads: two people into the group, there is no leader. It’s all right, we are most concerned about is not the leader of the problem. Because my English is bad and cousin, in case something going through the customs, said he did not understand what not to let immigration? Alas! Worry is useless, bite the bullet and go. We quickly downloaded from Nepal border crossing cards to fill out templates, called again and the way cattle service to the Bhutan border crossing cards to fill out template. Everything, in a tense and looking in, started for the first time no leader’s foreign tour.

 

Digression: on April 25, 2015, after 81 years after Nepal recurrence of large earthquakes. The earthquake, which gives Nepal brought heavy disaster to the people, seriously affected the development of the tourism industry, and brought a devastating blow to those old buildings. According to statistics, the damage focuses on ancient buildings in the quake, a total of 14 seats, 12 of which are world heritage, most of the damage is completely collapsed, rebuild times are expected for 5-10 years. Think of the glorious monuments, forever frozen in photographs and memories, it is very distressing. Hope our guide and driver, hotel waiter, all in Nepal have met people, can be safe. Hope that those monuments that were destroyed will be rebuilt soon, again to show their style in the world.

First, Nike:

 

(A) travel must-have items:

1, copies of passports, Visa, copy of ID card and two ID photos, and passport to be kept separate. To be sure, you can also prepare an electronic version of the phone or email. In case the flowers and young Li Feier, lost passports, replacement is easier.

2, summer, and autumn. We are September 18, Nepal Kathmandu temperatures similar to Shanghai, wearing short sleeve dress with no problem. Bhutan due to high altitude, temperatures several degrees lower than Kathmandu, big temperature difference between day and night, feel like early autumn in the North of China. Bhutan and Nepal Naga width, if it rains, very cold at night, I didn’t feel warm wear cashmere clothing.

Gloves, hats. Nepal Naga wide located on the mountain, temperatures similar to Bhutan. When I get up in the morning to see the Sunrise, the temperature is very low, cousin was busy taking pictures in the end feels frozen hands. Be prepared so chilly a friend the gloves and hats.

Portable non-slip hiking boots, climbing cave temple.

3, sunscreen: visor or sunglasses, and sunscreen. Whether Nepal is also Bhutan, sunny days when the Sun is shining, UV is very strong. When we were climbing cave temple in Bhutan, just a sunny day, Sun halos.

4, umbrella or raincoat. September of Nepal and Bhutan is the rainy season, weather, make sure you take rain gear.

5, mask. Nepal Kathmandu streets and vehicles kicking up dust, there is a strong smell of exhaust, is hard for you to imagine. Even when wearing a mask sitting in the car, still can smell the pungent smell. Local traffic police are almost always wore masks.

6, universal converter plugs, power strips. Some hotels available plug less then strip display one’s prowess.

7, to prepare at least two large-capacity SD card. My SD card broke in Bhutan, but bring a spare.

8, charging the treasure and flashlights. Nepal power shortages, frequent power outages. Our hotel can make their own power, but can’t seem to have continued power supply intermittent electricity supply. If you love their cell phones, or by charging the treasure. Flashlight when the power, especially when on the toilet at night, will be put to use.

9, commonly used drugs. Like cold medicine, anti-inflammatory, cough medicine, stomach medicine, allergy pills, patches, bandage, damp plaster, and so on, prepare for a rainy day.

10, pen. Used to fill out immigration cards.

11, the dollar.

Nepal’s currency rupee, streets of convertible currency store. Rupees for the Yuan’s exchange rate is: 15.28:1 (September 18 rate). We were at the hotel front desk to change, outside of the exchange rate of the currency exchange shop was 15.32. Hotel exchange rates a little lower, but no more worries to the counterfeit money. Rupee against the dollar was 94.54:1 (September 19, exchange rate). Some stores can pay in RMB and USD. Website in US dollars-for-RS the best buys, we wondered, in accordance with the exchange rate difference is not much, if less directly can be ignored.

Bhutan’s currency is called nu, RMB cannot be exchanged in Bhutan, could pass $ so be prepared. Dollar was probably around 1:50 against the effort. We in Bhutan no change effort, directly spent dollars.

Whether in Nepal Bhutan, businesses charge is RMB or USD, find your local currency.

 

(B) the overall impression: Nepal and Bhutan are the religious atmosphere of the country. Nepal people most of the Hindu faith. In Nepal, more temples than House, God is greater than man, it is said that they believed in God there are 330 million, Nepal’s total population is about 30 million. It’s hard to imagine! Bhutan’s State religion is Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism), built a temple in every village across the country a total of more than 2000 temples. Religion has become an integral part of daily life, like eating and sleeping, as necessary. Nepal, like India. Durbar square as a world cultural heritage, is the entire Nepal history and essence of the culture. And in Bhutan, as if to Tibet. Bhutan attaches great importance to environmental protection, the forest coverage rate up to 72%, it is worth studying. (C) recommended attractions: Nepal HA bumisegoro, Bo, Durbar square and Bard gang, punakazong, and duoxiongla mountain pass in Bhutan 108 stupas.

(D) never forget the food:

Nepal local yogurt flavored meal. I like yogurt, yogurt drink a lot at home and abroad. Nepal yogurt flavor meal, as if adding some spice, flavor and I used to drink any yogurt is different, spicy flavor with a touch of, very good. Bhaktapur yogurt is more famous, but I think this yogurt is also not featured.

Bhutan honey. Bhutan Honey rich, natural additive, put it on a slice of bread for breakfast, delicious.

Trip to Nepal and Bhutan did not eat much food. Arrived Kathmandu on the first night, guide us to taste Nepal local flavor meal. Some dishes of curried, cousin to India, Curry eat badly. Later Guide to seek our advice, we wanted to have lunch, guides us to eat Chinese food, taste good, we ate very satisfied.

In Bhutan, breakfast is Western-style, are generally very simple, with bread, eggs, honey, jam, ham, sausage, etc. Lunch and dinner are buffet, meat and soup. There are generally three or four vegetables, such as potatoes, cauliflower, carrots, etc, and some added cream dish. One or two meat dishes, such as chicken, beef or fish. We have rice and CHOW Mein. Buffet of fruit, ice cream or dessert buffet. Bhutanese people especially like to eat Chili, light-oriented but most of the food offered to tourists. Bhutanese rice-producing vegetables, should be pure natural green pollution free, friends if you go, be sure to eat yo.

(E) accommodation: Hotel standard double room. Some hotel room with WIFI, some are there in the hotel lobby, is free. Bhutan’s hotel rooms are equipped with electric heating, cold at night in Bhutan, but the room is very warm. We live in the most satisfactory Hotel Paro KHANKHU RESORT, eat well live well good service good. Most unsatisfactory Hotel Nepal na jiakuote NIVA NIWA LODGE, no electric kettle without air conditioning, no electric heating, no TV. Nepal Kathmandu: HOTEL RADISSON Thimphu: PHUNTSHOPELRI not danpunaka: ZANGTOPELRI not danpaluo: KHANKHU RESORT Nepal nagarkot: NIVA NIWA LODGE Kunming: Pepsi’s paradise Airlines Hotel (vi) traffic information: is China Eastern Airlines plane ride back and forth, is to go to Bhutan by the Bhutanese airline plane. Flight reference time: Shanghai-Kunming: MU5804,7:40 took off, arriving at 10:55. Kunming to Kathmandu: MU757,14:25 off, 15:20 (local time) to reach. Kathmandu to Paro: KB401,9:25 took off, arriving at 10:40. Paro to Kathmandu: KB204,8 took off, arriving at 8:55. From Kathmandu to Kunming: MU758,16:10 off, 21:15 (Beijing time) to reach. Kunming-Shanghai: MU5801,8 took off, arriving at 10:55. Because it is two people into the group, local travel agencies to arrange us a car. Is a modern SUV sitting in Bhutan, Nepal does not know what is the brand of the car looks a bit old. Driver and tour guide sitting in the front row, we get in the back seat, it’s a little sense of when. (G) schedule: first day: Kunming–Shanghai–Nepal Kathmandu. Next day: Kathmandu, HA da bumisegoro-Bo-Durbar square. Third day: Nepal Kathmandu – danpaluo – thimbu, Tashi. Fourth day: Thimphu – punakazong – qiemilakang Temple. The fifth day: the punaka-108 stupas – Thimphu the national post office – Tarkin Buddha-the Zoo-National Monument–the top parrot. Sixth day: Paro Chu Temple, cave temple–CA. Seventh day: no danpaluo–Nepal-Kathmandu-Bhaktapur Durbar square–jiakuote. Eighth day: Naga-lata-Kunming-Kathmandu. Nineth day: Kunming–Shanghai.

(H) the season information: in September, Nepal and Bhutan are the rainy season. When we go, it rained practically every day. The day after the night, Thunder cats and dogs, there are even two nights of rain the next day. If the dry season, the sky was clear, visibility is high, can see endless snow-capped mountains, enjoy spectacular sunrises and sunsets. If the rainy season, although the road climbing photos much inconvenience, but can see the picturesque rice fields, mist-shrouded mountains, like a wonderland of Zong Bao, nature will give you presents another charming scenery. Funny thing is, some people went in dry season, but met with rain; some people went during the rainy season, he stumbled over a sunny day. Apply online to popular myth, you go on a trip, what will be met no matter the weather, you’ll see what kind of beauty, depending on your personality. Therefore, members need not tangle when traveling, and when it comes time, go at once. (IX) shopping: Nepal wood is very famous, particularly wood carving of Peacock window. Fine wood carvings are expensive, cheaper work are a bit rough. Square Bhaktapur pottery pottery is also very distinctive. Like Thangka, masks, knitwear, and are similar in style and crafts of Tibet, Yunnan in China. Stamps are very famous in Bhutan, Thimphu the National Post Office sells beautifully printed postcards and stamps, visitors can make their photos into stamps. Custom stamp prices like 180 Nu (about 3 US dollars). Like stamp collecting friends that must not be missed. Reminder: the jewelry be careful! (This is what I see in a travelogue, relayed to you for reference. ) This travel writer before going to Bhutan, saw the introduction of a lot about Bhutan, felt that all the Bhutanese very simple goodness, trade is fair trade. Paro when shopping, see coral for sale in the store, the price is very cheap. Then deliberately let guides help clarify whether coral, shops guarantee is absolutely true, also wrote a list, then the author bought some coral chain. Results returned to the hotel that night, the authors found no, open look, turns out to be bone dyed fake corals. Besides angry tour guide took them to find the store, store refuses to recognize the results posted, things only end up losing some money refunded. A mouse dung broke a pot of soup. The authors propose, things like buying jewellery should be careful, unless you’re very good at, is not recommended to buy. After all, the profiteers are everywhere, Bhutan is no exception.

(J) the travel recommendation:

    Nepal and Bhutan are religious country, do as Romans do, to respect local culture and customs.

    Nepal shop, be sure to bargain. Not knowing the language doesn’t matter doesn’t matter English, the calculator is the best tool. To cite an example: we bought a small purse, asking 300 rupee one, finally was sold for RS 150 for two.

Flying Paro from Kathmandu, it is best to sit in the position of the aircraft on the left side of the window; when I come back, preferably sitting in the position of the window on the right. If the weather is good, can see the spectacular wonders of the Himalayas on the route. That scene, too shocked, if not see, unfortunately.

Bhutan’s elevation is high, but the Green is very good, high oxygen content, never heard tourists plateau reaction. Of course, if you go to the snow-capped mountains on foot, that’s a different story. Began my cousin and I am worried about, specially prepared drugs, on the results useless.

In Bhutan, visit religious sites require dress grave, to wear long pants. And Thailand is like. When we visited Tashi, was caught in the heavy rain, but not wearing a hat or umbrella, pouring very pathetic. Remove your shoes when they visited the main hall of the temple, but the floor is cool, the girls must pay attention to. My cousin and I had taken a pair of thick wool socks, wool socks on shoes removed, or over time is really a bit much.

Bhutan mountain, roads are almost always twists in the mountains, is easy to remember that song of the 18 road bends. Good roads, speed limits will be soon. Where bad roads and very bumpy. Each more or less three or four hours, like my cousin usually does not get carsick feel a little dizzy. So people prone to motion sickness must be prepared, be sure to eat ahead of time motion sickness pills. Nepal na jiakuote road almost as well.

Bhutan cave temple was built into the cliffs, mountain adventures, no cable car, it takes about four hours. Rain, the road was muddy, slippery hard, have a fear of heights must think twice. Poor hill-climbing friends, if there is trekking poles must take, no, you bought at the foot of the stick and will catch on. To travel light backpack except necessities, things less well, otherwise it will become a heavy burden.

Visit the qiemilakang Temple, light cave temple. If it is a sunny day, please wear a visor or sunglasses, put on some sunscreen. If it is a rainy day, please bring an umbrella or a raincoat, raincoats as if more convenient, ideally bring sticks or sticks.

Communications, Bhutan’s infrastructure now more and more perfect, I am using Samsung mobile, Unicom card, the signal has always been very good. Cousin is iPhone, mobile cards, signal strong weak in some places simply have no signal. It is recommended that you use Unicom card. Bhutan is said to be local cards are big.

Bhutan National smoking ban of smoking friends to consider.

Time: Nepal time 2 hours 15 minutes later than Beijing time.

DAY

1

The Kathmandu Valley

The year 2014-09-18

Second, travel articles:

September 18: from Shanghai HongQiao airport and transfer in Kunming, to fly to Nepal’s capital Kathmandu, evening tasting Nepal buffet meal, and enjoy the singing and dancing performances.

Met air traffic control at the airport, we are worried lest delayed too long and miss the plane to Katmandu. Fortunately not for long plane took off, and arrive in Kunming.

The clouds outside the window.

China Eastern airplane food.

   

 Baggage, check in, go through customs. Kunming airport can be really cool, the more we stay colder, in the kettle filled with hot water, take turns using it for warmth. At the airport, we had a young girl, she was free to Nepal. She first heard about the country of Bhutan, was surprised that we were described to her in detail.

Plane to fly to Canada, punctuality at 14:30, our 15 o’clock plane.

Flight time, flight attendants give you distribute Nepal’s immigration card. We found the entry card styles changed, and download templates are not the same. What’s even more damning, some English words have changed, really giving us a headache. Though online said, just to fill out their passport numbers and names, wrong does not matter, because the immigration officer did not see. We are mindful, refer to the print template, conscientiously fill out immigration cards. Really do not understand and ask the flight attendant. Funny thing is, cousin sat next to his uncle who, like Nepal, and eager to give us a few words, said in English, cousin to follow.

When aircraft coming added, began circling in the sky, waiting for the airport’s instructions. Fortunately, the weather was fine, we have again and again to enjoy the scenery on the ground. Also do not tell how long, until we begin to feel dizzy when the plane finally landed.


Circled in Kathmandu.

Landing.

Housing density in the Valley.

Nepal local time 16:20, landed in Canada airport. Canada airport terminal is a common red brick building, is very simple. Later we visit Durbar square, found that most of the buildings are of this red brick structure. Illustrated with wood carving, shows Nepal was featured.

Online said, remember when going through customs, not to be wrong line, line to apply for visa on line. To the arrival hall, we looked around, should go to which window do? See lined up on the left side of the Hall a long queue, at the Kunming airport and our girls to chat over there, she was to apply for visa. So we came in the other team. Going through the customs, I squeeze the sweat, fear that entry point problem. Result, the immigration officer took my card directly into a host of immigration cards, didn’t take a look at all! Online said was right! Our white worried.

Airport exit poll surge, in addition to pick up, remaining is to drum up business. We just came out, several people gathered around, asked in Chinese: “car? “We waved, eyes wide open looking for the Guide. Cousin good eyesight and see someone at a glance holding “VIP” brand. Asked in the past, it really was our tour guide. The victorious junction, I’ve been hanging heart were finally put down. Our journey, successfully took the first step.

Nepal tour guides and drivers are men, is not high. Guide with a smart phone, free time on the Internet. Driver thin, every time I see we both smiled a genuine smile, eager to help us our luggage, give the feeling of honesty, very friendly. In contrast, the guide is a bit “slippery”.

From the airport after the encounter traffic jams, Kathmandu, guided tour will start in the car. Kathmandu, Nepal language meaning “happy city”. It is Nepal’s capital, is also the largest city of 1370 meters above sea level. Founded in 723, with more than 1000 years of history in 1980, was included in a UNESCO protected list of 18 cities in Asia.

Guided tour of Chinese is not very good, don’t have standard pronunciation, we listened very hard and didn’t understand how much. OK, can’t understand, we can see with their own eyes.

Around the airport is busy, busy, buzzing. A lot of cars on the road, motorcycle, first look, thought to Viet Nam. Traffic is not very good, dust on the streets, in the car could smell the acrid smell of exhaust. We sorry, and it’s not polite, but hold on, put a mask on.

Open all the way, we did not see a traffic light, traffic intersection have artificial traffic police command, did not think there are ladies. Because there are no traffic lights, zebra crossings, pedestrians are free to cross the road. Read Nepal cross the road, look at Chinese-style crossing, almost nothing. In Nepal drive absolutely eyes, and ears open. Not only to watch for pedestrians, beware of dog, there are scurrying around motorcycle. In the corner, I saw a female traffic police severely to stop a group of command and free to pedestrians crossing, is really majestic, women to men!

Buses in Kathmandu, is very old, decorated with colorful ribbons on the front. When not closed, the conductor was standing at the door, a station called passengers, passengers are piled on, feeling like Bedlam. Cousin said this and India streets alike.

It is said that in Nepal, how many, the temple as there are, how many people, how much God has. Sure enough, every not far, you will see a temple or a statue or a stupa. It is said that the city has temples in more than 2,700 seats, really can be called “ten steps to a temple, shrine five steps”, feel God everywhere.

Nepal people like gods who daub of red paint, may be a blessing.

We should go back to the hotel for a rest, go to another restaurant in the evening Nepal local cuisine meals.

The hotel lobby.

The room we stayed.

Restaurants are European-style, has quite a few guests when we arrived, there was a table is to tour in China, saw fellow in a foreign country, always feeling very warm.

When to sit, feeling a little uncomfortable. Pasta with candles on the table, didn’t think I’d be dinner by candlelight, candlelight faint, very romantic. Food packed in trays inside, utensils of brass and is quite distinctive. Had a plate of snacks on the first, there is the famous MOMO, shaped like Xiao Long Bao. And then went to dinner, including bean soup, vegetable, chicken, vegetables, staple food is rice, most of the dishes are placed in the Curry. Last went to a bowl of yogurt is delicious.

Restaurant built a small stage in front, dining with song and dance performances, like dance, music has a lively, dancing was cheerful.

Inside the restaurant is a private room, Nepal native inside for dinner. A Nepal girl play alone and went in and out. She came to our table, and guides for a long time, very cute.

Eating Nepal flavor meal, back at the hotel, we decided to go for a walk, in the hotel front desk changed 100 million rupees. The hotel entrance is on a side street, only one car. On both sides of the street are selling all kinds of Nepal handicraft shops, there are currency exchange shops, there is a supermarket on the corner, a plaque reads: “big Mart”. Operating mainly foodstuffs and commodities in supermarkets, in addition to local, there are also many imported, species richness. Impressed me chocolates and candies, occupies a whole shelf, many of them from India. In some cases, very cheap, and internally. Such as purified drinking water, 100 rupees 2; 50 grams of Curry, 50 rupees.

Beautifully packaged tea.

At 10 o’clock, we were getting ready for bed, suddenly with a loud, dark in the room. We paused, to react immediately, this is the power went out. But only moments later, snapped and electricity. I don’t know why, that night my cousin and I had a good sleep. Half awake and half asleep, I knew, and stopped at least twice during the night, at 6 o’clock in the morning and stopped again. Nepal power shortage, is a well-deserved reputation.

The Kathmandu Valley

DAY

2

Kathmandu Durbar square

The year 2014-09-19

September 19: visit HA bumisegoro, Boda, visited Kathmandu’s Durbar square in the afternoon, are the cultural heritage of the world.

Thunder and lightning in the Middle, it began to rain heavily, fortunately it stopped raining in the morning.

10:30 will not start today, sleep longer in the morning, but I woke up at 6 o’clock. Well, the early bird catches the worm, to eat breakfast.

Breakfast at the hotel was great, dessert is particularly high. I have a sweet tooth, see these adorable cookies cannot but each took one. Tastes good, brownie cake is especially good, unfortunately, at breakfast the next day no.

Our hotel room.

Nepal people, mostly Hindu, few believed in Buddhism, Islam, and so on. Nepal’s Lumbini, is the birthplace of Gautama Buddha, is a Buddhist shrine. Nepal think Buddhism is from Nepal and XING in India and into China. Here the in Hinduism and Buddhism and infiltrate each other for a long time, many Nepal people have Hindu temple to worship God, to Buddhist temples the liturgy. It is this fusion of religion and tolerance, long Nepal rare religious conflicts.

We visit Boda bumisegoro in the morning, is a Buddhist shrine.

The scenery on the road.

In addition, such buildings are rare.

Riot police can be seen frequently.

Boda HA-bumisegoro (The Great Boudha Stupa), 38 meter high tower, 100 meters in circumference, is the world’s largest complex of Bowl-shaped semi-circular stupa, pagoda is said to have placed a Buddha disciple mokejiayefo’s bones. Huge tower like an upside down Bowl, extraordinary momentum. Above the domed Tower is a square Tower, one of the best, is a square on each side of the Tower, had a picture of a pair of blue eyes. With this pair of lifelike eyes, pagoda also seems to have a life. Nepal-style pagoda, surrounded by painted with giant Buddha eyes, a symbol of boundless Dharma, without missing. Funny thing is, every stupa on the eyes is different. I think boudha stupa on the eyes are the most beautiful. Quietly stared at it, everything seems to be in the heart, I cant hide.

Below were taken on the way to another stupa look it in the eye is different.

In this earthquake, cracks in the top, becoming dangerous buildings, towers had collapsed.

Pagoda over the planes passing overhead from time to time, this is air, and familiar feel.

Prayer flags, also called an Irish flag, flag has five colors, Red, blue, white, green, yellow, printed designs such as Buddhist scriptures, statues, Toshima, is the unique way of blessing by Tibetans.

Streamers flying in the wind, the wind? Is the fan? Answer: Yes.

 

A white wall outside of the pagoda, wall recessed niches on the wall, hanging up the cone. Elderly people wearing Tibetan robes and prayer beads in one hand and rotate the cylinder, in accordance with the clockwise walk leisurely around the Tower, I heard to say 1000 to repair a merit.

Bumisegoro the surrounding shops, selling Thangka, masks, Tibetan carpets, Tibetan, Tibetan religious articles such as jewelry and handicrafts, also has a restaurant, a tea-house and hotel. There is also a Tibetan Lama Temple, the Golden Dharma wheel glittered in the sunshine, dressed in orange robes Lama from time to time. Look around, wearing Tibetan robes turret of the elderly, the multicolored prayer flags flapping in the wind, let people trance back to Tibet.

It is said that most of these buildings are being built after 1959, there was a lot of Tibetans in exile from Tibet so far, opened the sale of shops for a living. Pagoda near the Tibetan diaspora, this area is also known as “little Tibet”.

The Lama Temple.

Bumisegoro panoramic view.

When we got to the bumisegoro, thick clouds are in the sky. Gradually, the clouds parted and the sun warm smiling face, Sun-not immediately, we wore hats, sunglasses or something as soon as possible.

Nepal people believe that dog is the keeper of death, is the incarnation of God, they never hurt the dog. Nepal stray dogs everywhere, whatever the occasion, regardless of location, slept soundly in a lazy attitude, feeling better than people live at home. As live pigeons and monkeys also moisturizing.

In Nepal, the highest animal is the ox, treatment than humans. Cattle are Nepal’s State animal, legend is the Mount of Hindu God Lord Shiva. In Nepal, cattle don’t have to do any farm work, India Muslims don’t kill cattle, do not eat beef. If you kill a cattle, equivalent to murder. It is said not only to fines, and close to 20. Water buffaloes have not been so lucky, not only to work hard, sacrifice was also was killed. Alas! Also cow, why so much difference. This shows a problem, reincarnation is a skill!

After visiting bumisegoro, and our guides on the side of a bus. Suddenly felt a pull on my clothes and turned away, turned out to be a Nepal women, a hand holding a small boy, the other a hand holding a bottle. See me back as soon as I shake the bottle in his hand. I suddenly remembered that, online says Nepal must pay attention to children who speak English very well, once you put on, would you buy them a book or buying a packet of powdered milk, your front left, their hind legs put things back to the boss. Did not expect so soon, I ran into a bit, watching her with bottles, some people buy milk for children. My cousin said, but could not understand what she said, we walked to the stands in the distance, the women had no choice but to look for the next target.

We went to lunch, lunch, afternoon to visit Kathmandu’s Durbar square.

The Chinese restaurant.

Durbar square (Durbar Square), meaning Palace Square. Nepal a total of three Durbar square, located in Kathmandu, Patan and bad gang. When the Raiders in the beginning makes me dizzy, finally got it. Said sixth-generation King of the Malla’s death, his three sons, according to the party, self-reliance is King, their construction, building palaces and India Temple, so that the three Palace Square at the same time. Three square architectural style similar to now have been listed as world cultural heritage.

Around the Durbar square.

Durbar square.

My first impression of Kathmandu Durbar square is: too busy! Here may be the city’s most popular places, look on as a world cultural heritage site, as though it were an ordinary square of local leisure and entertainment, a noisy free market. Cars and motorcycles in the yard, and visitors to be careful especially those who do not know the motorcycle would come out of nowhere. Can you imagine our Palace is this like?

My second impression of Durbar square is: building lot! Is said to have a total of more than 50 palaces and Temple in the square, brings together architectural products such as wood carving, stone carving, metal engraving, like a classical art museum. Due to the limited square area, some buildings close together, crowded.

Durbar square Shang of building most is Newale style, brick wood, red brick walls match large fine of wood doors and Windows, following has red brick masonry of base (up up 12 layer), upper for multiple type roof (more for 2-3 layer, up to 5 layer), roof below has oblique support pillar, above carved full has Hindu many God only of various statue, is ancient and gorgeous, simple and grace. This is life in the Kathmandu Valley “Newale” people (Newari) created an architectural style, with strong national characteristics.

Some grass lawn on the construction of housing, revealed the ancient and the vicissitudes of life.

Nepal’s exquisite wood carving knife is too delicate, complicated pattern, beautiful, pieces of art. Lots of people and animals are drawn from Hindu Mythology.

Since ancient times, Nepal had many craftsmen, ancient Chinese famous building was designed by their participation in the building. It is said that during the early Tang dynasty, from Nepal’s ruler Princess married the Tibetan Emperor songtsen-Gampo, took her to the craftsmen involved in the construction of the Lhasa Jokhang and Ramoche Temple. In addition, during the Yuan dynasty Kublai, born in Patan, Nepal architect Arniko (Araniko), built a number of temples, pagodas and Buddha. Pagoda is one of the most famous Beijing miaoyingsi (also known as the White Pagoda Temple), White Tower, today we get to Beijing fuchengmen, can still clearly see the largest Tibetan-style Buddhist pagoda in the country.

Most buildings on the square are India temples, dedicated India deity Taleju, and Shiva, Shiva’s wife the snow goddess, Vishnu, God, hanumanshen (Monkey God), the elephant-headed God, like most temples dedicated to Shiva. Guide a lot, we finally did remember a few. When I wrote this travelogue, and reference a lot of information, I know part of the name and origin of the main building.

Dumumiao, built in the 12th century, is the oldest building on Durbar square. Legends built the Temple of all wood comes from a tree, hence the name. “Kathmandu” (Kathmandu), the name is “dumumiao” (Kasthamandap) evolved here. The temple God Ka Nath, profile, one was originally a 13th century ascetic. Dumumiao can go.

Dumumiao completely collapsed in the earthquake.

Dumumiao is also an image of Ganesha statue, stands a Bell in front, Nepal to worship before God, first tap the Bell, as gods and say hello, tell God I come, please hear my prayers.

 

There are three temples in the following figure, from left to right is dilujiamohannalayang Temple (Trailokya Mohan Narayan Temple), mazhu Temple (Maju Deval Temple) and Narayan Temple of Vishnu (Narayan (Vishnu) Temple), three Temple had collapsed in the quake.

Dilujiamohannalayang Temple, built in 1680, with a five-story base and three-tiered roof. This is a Vishnu Temple, Narayan was one of the incarnation of the God Vishnu, is the God of wisdom. Cana Temple kneeling before a statue of the great stone statues of Lu Tu (Garuda, Garuda), palms, and sleek, it is the Mount of the God Vishnu. The temple was severely damaged in the 1934 earthquake and rebuilt later returned to its original appearance. And again in this year’s massive earthquake were destroyed, completely collapsed.

Aka Lu Tu in the following figure statue facing the Temple of dilujiamohannalayang, the building in the distance is the mazhu Temple and Narayan Vishnu Temple.

 

Mazhu Temple, built in the 17th century, nine-story base and a three-tiered roof, which houses the symbol of Shiva’s forest land, bottom front of the temple there is a India-xikala the white Temple.

 

Below left is the mazhu Temple, buildings are being repaired Narayan Vishnu on the right temple and a temple dedicated to Vishnu, a small scale.

 

Shiva and his wife, Mountain Temple of goddess Parvati.

 

Kakaishiwaer Temple (Kakeshwar Temple), modeling different, the lower part of the tradition of Nepal-brick, upper India xikala-white pagoda.

 

Snyder aka Temple (Chyasing Dega Temple), a unique octagonal three buildings, built in 1648, enshrine and worship black gods grams to nano, Kerry Turner is one of the incarnations of Vishnu. Most of the temples were in the square is a rectangle structure with multiple eaves, octagonal multiple like this is rare.

Kumari Kumari Temple (KUMARI GHAR), is one of the most famous Temple in Durbar square. Temple, there lived a girl, are carefully selected out of the incarnation of the goddess, a bit like the reincarnation of Tibet. Girls are selected only three or four years old, leaving parents and moved to live in the temple, accept followers worship, glory and lonely life. Until she grows to adolescence, to leave Kumari temple returned to normal life, Goddess location by a little girl take over. From high above the living Goddess, at once human, the shift to go through a difficult period of adaptation. Although the living Goddess to abdicate after a hefty dowry and Government subsidies, but they are difficult to marry a wife, because legend married man living Goddess will be premature. With the progress of the times, this situation has been improved in recent years, there are several living Goddess is said to have married and had children.

In Nepal, Kumari living Goddess is more than one top Kathmandu Durbar square, dedicated to the goddess, is the patron saint of the whole Kathmandu, even before Nepal King to have added to her Revere.

Although this is Nepal’s religious culture, I would not comment, but still could not help but sigh.

Living Goddess daily in a specific period of time, dress appeared in front of the window, one can only see, can’t take pictures. We went to the wrong time, so there is no true.

Kumari Temple painted two stone lions at the door.

Kumari Temple wood carving in black, appear dignified and elegant.

Jiagenate Temple (Jagannath Temple), is famous among foreign tourists because there are many showing sex scenes on the columns of the temple carvings, so visitors known as “Temple of love”. Many online travel are referred to this unique Temple. Did not expect is that this temple is one of the guide focuses on building. It is said that in ancient times, religious people, resulting in reduced fertility, so King came up with a way, reminded people in religion at the same time, don’t forget to multiply. We have to say that the King was too talented. Tour guide solemnly explains, I go not, nor had to pretend to listen, heart was full of embarrassment. This is about cultural differences.

Like this temple, in Nepal for more than one seat, it could be Nepal’s unique place in the traditional culture.

Below is the Temple of jiagenate, very beautiful set of buildings.

 

Pulatapu·mala gilded bronze statue of the King of the Kingdom of Kathmandu, two and four respectively before the Queen and a small statue of the three princes, faces the Hanuman cards. The statue is facing the Palace of the King, and keep praying to God blesseth posture. The King is famous for its passion for art in history, Palace gate, the monkey God and Nasar gardens were built during his reign.

When I wrote this, I suddenly thought of a problem: when the Malla Dynasty was replaced by Shah dynasty, this statue represents the Malla King why not destroyed by the winner yet? Or be replaced by a statue of the King of the Shah dynasty? Is the founding of the Shah dynasty monarch open-minded, broad-minded? Or because of religious reasons? In any case, the statue of the Malla Kings were preserved, it is so lucky.

 

The Hanuman Dhoka (Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Museum), also known as the old palace, a white with a European-style building, next to the “Temple of love”. This was Nepal Royal family a place to live, luxuriously, and kept a lot of that year Royal living supplies, collectibles, there are plenty of photos of the Royal family, that’s something to see. In the Museum’s Garden to take pictures, but pictures are not allowed inside the building, cameras, mobile phones have to be stored in a locker on the first floor.

The Hanuman Dhoka, takes its name from India in the epic, the Ramayana monkey God “Hanuman”, the equivalent of China’s Palace Museum, history of several hundred years, the layout is careful, grand scale, formed by the Kings constantly modified to expand. In the middle of the Shah dynasty, which once had 35 yards and dozens of palaces, temples. Now left with 12 yards, only one garden is open to visitors as a museum.

In the earthquake, the old palace partially collapsed, becoming dangerous buildings.

Note the statues of Gates under the Red canopy on the left, it is the monkey God Hanuman, omniscient, Almighty, Qitian, China is a bit like the Monkey King. Statue wearing a red cloak, face covered in orange-red pigment, cannot see the true God monkey.

 

Old palace gate, gate in front of a pair of painted stone lions stand about a lion sitting Shiva, the other a lion sitting on Shiva’s wife, Parvati, goddess.

There are three groups of carvings above the lintel, the left is the black God dance with two GOP, the right is the Palace built by King pulatapu·Mala and Queen, among thousand of Bhagavad Gita statue originating from India the classical epic, the story of the Maha Bharat.

 

Nasar courtyard inside the largest garden, this is where the crowned Kings ascended the throne. The northeastern corner of the courtyard there is a unique shape of the round towers of five heavy, that’s “five monkey God Temple” sacrifices appear in five face of monkey God Hanuman.

Five monkey God Temple.

    Doors also have big eyes.

 

Basentapuer building, nine-story house, located in the southeast corner of the gardens (bottom right side of the building with four heavy), is open to visitors, the top four has a viewing window, overlooking Kathmandu, if the weather is clear, you can still see the snow-capped mountains in the distance. Unfortunately, stairs, narrow and steep, my cousin and I are a little afraid of heights, you don’t. In the earthquake, the building partially collapsed. I had known it, was going to say anything at that time, really regret now.

 

Taleju Temple (Taleju Temple), built in the 16th century, a 12-story base and a triple roof, the roof is no ordinary tiles, but built of gilded copper, is a typical Nepal Ziggurat-style architecture. Taleju is considered the patron saint of the Malla Dynasty, revered, so this temple is the largest and biggest temple square meters, is the highest Temple in Kathmandu. As Nepal Royal family Temple of Queen’s counsel, normally not open to the public.

Goddess Temple colorful doors.

 

Mahadexiwa Temple, located in the north end of the square, whose history can be traced back to 1561 during the reign of the Malla Dynasty. The temple was rebuilt in 1963 and dedicated to Shiva, small in size, incense, to sacrifice every day an endless stream of people. Temple stood on the front porch holding a Trident of Shiva and his mount Nandi, a head of cattle.

 

In fact, many of the buildings on the square in 1934, suffered serious damage in the earthquake, was later repaired. So many looks in old style, in fact, is not the ancient buildings. UNESCO had pointed out that, if not more to protect, where monuments and natural landscapes will gradually disappear! But nature did not give Nepal the opportunity, again made the terminator, the only remaining old buildings have again been drowned, repair, reconstruction work will be difficult and long.

 

At 16 o’clock we went back to the hotel to rest, around 17 and it began to rain outside, 18 we went out to eat dinner, come back when the rain finally stopped. We put in $ 20 rupees, or go to the shop next to the hotel. When we go to fewer visitors, some shopkeepers standing at the door to welcome guests and saw we passed greeted us warmly. We bought several small souvenirs, and then to the big Mart and bought some food. Colors of Chiang Mai Chiang Mai color

Hotel devotes an attendant is responsible for the guest to open the door, and politely greeted with a “Namaste” (Nepal language Hello). Every time my cousin and I nodded and smiled, politely saying “Namaste”. We went in and out many times estimated also a face familiar. When N times of when we walked into the hotel, and the waiter’s eye on the pair, both sides suddenly laughed. Waiter that smile on his face, a look that is from the heart, is no longer the kind of professional smile. That was in memory of Nepal who best smile, we sincerely hope that Nepal people out of the shadow of the earthquake as soon as possible, reproduce the bright smile on her face.

Kathmandu Durbar square

DAY

3

Bhutan

The year 2014-09-20

September 20: Nepal Kathmandu to not danpaluo, from Paro to Thimphu, the capital, visited Tashi.

Guide to us a couple of printed A4 paper, and this is where we go to Bhutan visa and air ticket booking form.

7 points off for the airport, our guide led us to the entrance of the terminal building, soldiers at the door checking passports, not passengers are not allowed to enter. We went to check in, baggage staff give our backpack tied a tag which is Bhutan airlines logo. Then go to fill out an exit card, through customs. Airport security is very interesting, men and women separate check, the man on the left, female on the right, the security staff is split between men and women. Security staff will dress as soldiers, airport there are many soldiers on duty.

Very busy in the departure lounge, there is in Europe and America, India, Arab and, of course, is absolutely not the Chinese people. Occasionally seen identified Bhutan air hangs on the baggage of passengers, it must be the same flight with us.

Our plane was delayed and punctuality should 9:25 take off, arriving at 10:40. Bhutan’s only airport, built in Paro (Paro) of a Gorge, 2280 m above sea level, is one of the most dangerous in the world, I heard that as long as the weather is bad, you can’t take off and land. English radio in the airport, we did not really understand. E-scroll on the screen in English, we don’t know. In order not to miss the flight, we might as well wait, sitting next to the gate, staring at the ups and downs of the aircraft on the runway, while those identified Bhutan air hangs on the luggage of passengers and see if they have any. So an hour later, another plane has landed, the tail bright yellow and orange-and-Red pattern leapt out of my eyes, Bhutan Air planes! And medium sized aircraft, is not mentioned in the travels of the kind of small aircraft with a propeller. That’s great, not a long time later, I seen some in the travel will take off has been postponed until the afternoon.

Check my ticket will not be boarding at once, but also into a waiting room waiting. Wait until the notice board, split between men and women and had a simple security check.

Bhutan airline flight attendants wearing the Bhutanese national dress, men’s clothing called “Elaine”, women call “Kira”, somewhat similar to Tibetan Tibetan robes. Our seats are on the right side of the window, we find it very regrettable, which see snow again. Unexpectedly the weather not to force, now below the clouds, and can’t see anything. The passengers sitting on the left side of the window must be very depressed. Aircraft turbulence, bumps is very powerful. This is most bumps I’ve ever sat in a plane. I feel very uncomfortable entry card is also helping to fill out. Airplane is like a bird, wings, braved storms, struggling to fly in the clouds.

Canada airports.

Bhutan airline plane.

Plus numerous House, photographed on the plane.

Bhutan airline meals.

When the plane landed, sees window of peaks seemed close at hand, reach, the plane’s wings as if wiping his slide down the ridge. Really breathtaking!

Only we have a plane on the tarmac and the airport is still open, passenger voices with ECHO. It was kind of “not loud, and people fear the sky” feel. Clouds in the sky, weather like this, it is no wonder that the plane would be delayed. Fresh and moist air we breathe deeply a few, feel much more comfortable. In the next few days, pure clean air to breathe, no exhaust, no smog, that’s great.

Stands on large photographs of the King and Queen at the airport, let us to gossip about the King and Queen of romantic and moving love story. When jigemei·kaisaer·wangchuke was the Crown Prince, and Yoshimasu • Pema met at a picnic. Prince was only 7 of the 17-year old Pema love at first sight, Pema soulful confession: “when you grow up, and if I was not married, you are married, and we still, I want you to be my wife. “After 14 years, becoming King Wangchuk has realized its promise on October 13, 2011 married PEMA for his Queen. Not only that, the King also made it clear that he would marry only one wife. In his mind, and Pema is a willingness to serve her without reservation of people and the good of the country. “She has a unique set of beautiful, smart, elegant, and although she is young, but she has a warm personality and a good heart. ”

Because the Royal family of Bhutan allowed polygamy, the present King’s father, abdicated King and marry four wives, but also a mother and four sisters. In 1980, the Government enacted the marriage act of Bhutan, declaring monogamy, abolished polygamy and polyandry, and prohibition of child marriages. However, due to historical reasons, Bhutan has put an end to this phenomenon, many rich people are still married two more wives and polygamy still exists in Northern Bhutan. As Bhutan King Wangchuk, young and handsome, is all the female idols of the heart of Bhutan, but gave up a fortune for the man, it is too rare! This is true love. The Bhutan King “like”!

Because a little airsick, I rested for a while after getting off the plane, just completed entry card. Entry hall was quiet, only the passengers of this flight. Immigration officials picked up the immigration card, glances at a glance down. And Nepal. My cousin and I was the last one out, visitors and tour guides are all gone, leaving only a youth in a Bhutanese national dress in the doorway, holding up a sign that read: “888 holiday (exclusive of Bhutan)”. Then we were stared at the sign, he suddenly as if by magic, suddenly turned brand, was written on the back of “VIP”. We’re laughing, apologized, saying us late. Tour guide wears glasses, looks elegant. His English was good and pronunciation than Nepal tour much. He studied in Sichuan, no wonder the Chinese are so good. We couldn’t be happier, which can communicate without obstacles.

Guides and drivers are men, and out of the car at a time when a gentleman to give us a car door. We are very sorry, said no, no. But they do not mistake, we’ll have to accept.

From the airport, first of all, be a Luan Shi Tan, a bumpy is bad. This is the only way to Thimphu, the capital, why not repair it? Over this stretch of the road better.

See first Zong Bao – Paro in Bhutan.

We went to lunch, stopping when it began to rain from the sky. See several parties in the restaurant, there were not many. Man and a middle-aged couple from China are, there is one of the Europe and America people is a people into the group. Regardless of size, are accompanied by a guide.

Where we ate lunch, opposite Hill is Paro.

From Paro to Thimphu, about 2 hours by car. Car winding through the mountains on one side and cliffs on one side Canyon. Looking ahead, both deep and shallow green. From time to time to see patches of blooming Cosmos, powder pink and tender, this Green world has added a bright color. Bhutan Green was very good. Valley wide strip, reclaimed a piece of farmland, a Tibetan-style houses which, bucolic. A clear stream from the airport with us, walking back, go on, we have been to Thimphu. Bhutan’s rich water resources, river water is Bhutan’s “white gold.” The main source of State revenue is hydropower, export India.

Not many cars on the road, dogs and cows a lot. Cattle are black, flicking their tails leisurely graze by the roadside. Guide says these are stocked in cow. Bhutan and Nepal, there are a lot of stray dogs. Some groups play imposing lying on the edge of the cliff, kept the distance, like the lion gate. It’s on the edge of the cliff, I’m nervous sweat, dogs do not have a fear of heights. There is one, and strutting in front of our car ran for a while, you give us clear it?

The winding hilly road, cousin immediately thought that the first of the 18 road bend, said the hotel will be easy to download and listen. This road is more than 18 bend may 1008 bend. Speeding, we in the car dangling, wanted to take pictures that even the camera end instability. Cousin, feeling dizzy, and also attend to a photo, close their eyes meditatively. I’m all right, holding a camera, regardless of focus does not focus, one is a snap.

In hazy Misty Rain, we arrived at the Thimphu (Thimphu). Thimphu 2320 meters above sea level, is Bhutan’s largest city, but may also be the world’s smallest capital. Only North and South 5-kilometer long, maximum width is less than 2-kilometer. Built by the mountain of Tymbou, UPS and downs road, this reminds me of the mountain city Chongqing in China. Thimphu in the rain is quiet, very few vehicles on the road, no traffic lights, we see only a traffic control box.

We first visit the Tashi (Trashi Chhoe Dzong). The so-called (Dzong), is a huge Castle. Bhutan every town has a Fort, and Zong Bao features are basically the same, that half is the seat of the local Government Office, and the other half is where the local religious leaders practice. Zong Bao are generally built close to the mountains, visibility, and breathtaking views. Big white walls, with red and gold roof, bright paint, seemed solemn and luxurious elegance. Tashi was built in 13th century, 2500 meters above sea level, is the political centre of capital Thimphu. It is the current King of office space, as well as the seat of the financial Department of the Interior, as religious leaders and Central summer of religious institutions in the.

Before you enter the Tashi, the Guide took out a long white shawl, slope on the body like a sash. Tour guide told us in Zong Bao, can’t open umbrellas or hats. When in Rome, we can only go in the rain, but rain is not. Roadside flower beds planted with a variety of colors of Roses (rose), the petals got raindrops glistening on character, and dripping. Visit guide will tell you where to take pictures, where I can’t take pictures. When he visits a Buddhist temple, take off your shoes, Buddhist temple can not take pictures inside. Raining harder and harder, we ended awkwardly from Tashi poured like a drowned rat. This is Bhutan we were going, please? Was a unique experience. Tour guides offer back to the hotel to rest, Tarkin because she is going to the Zoo is outside, so no way to visit the rain. We immediately agreed.

Our rooms at PHUNTSHOPELRI hotel, decoration very characteristic of Bhutan, has free WIFI in the room, also has an electric heating. Chill people outside, the room was warm as spring.

Only three floors, as if there is no elevator, our luggage two female attendants help to get upstairs, and gave them each a dollar tip.

TV is a little small, Samsung.

Dinner.

We live in the room, next to a building, do not know if it also belongs to the hotel. 21:30 left and right when we were getting ready for bed when I heard from the side of the building, heard the music, men and women, said laughing, sound like there to dance. Hey! This is a dance hall? Or dance practice room? With all the doubts, we went into a dream.

Is this building.

Bhutan

DAY

4

Bhutan

The year 2014-09-21

September 21: from Thimphu to punaka, visit punakazong and qiemilakang Temple.

It rained all night, also have no intention of stopping in the morning. Breakfast time, met some Chinese regiment, there were not many. Some ladies talk about yesterday met the Queen’s fleet, see the Queen wore sunglasses in the car. Wow! They are so lucky. There is also a Taiwan mission, there were seven or eight people. Yesterday sat next to cousin on the plane in which the old man, after seeing us warmly greeted asked our trip today. Man this mission trip less than one day, will go tomorrow to cave temple.

Breakfast.

8 departure punaka, through duoxiongla pass (Dochu La Pass) chukewangye monument, commonly known as “108 stupas” 3150 meters above sea level. Owing to the rain the stupa base shrouded in fog. Pagoda was built in 2005, in honor of destroy the Assamese rebels killed in southern Bhutan who also pray for the world peace. Tour guide said, when we came back down again to visit.

After a pagoda, the road started to get bad, very bumpy, this road is still not completed. Coupled with the rain, slow.

We rest at a restaurant in the Middle, just me and my cousin in the huge dining room table. A three or four year old Bhutanese boy playing alone in a restaurant does not shy with strangers came to our table, with the big black and white eyes looked at us curiously. Children’s eyes are always so clear, innocent, just like down mountain spring water. The floor to ceiling Windows in front of the restaurant has a panoramic terrace, weather permitting, to see the flow of the Himalayas. Unfortunately, it rained today, we can see, apart from the rain, is a vast expanse of clouds.

Punaka (Punakha) is the old capital of Bhutan, 1250 meters above sea level. Show in front of us, is one full of idyllic pastoral landscape. Around Green Hills, valleys are overlapping, vibrant rice fields, mountain mists and ethereal, dream-like, as if into a haven of peace. Is the first time we have seen such a beautiful rice fields, feeling fresh and excited, repeatedly press the shutter and hold down these views forever.

Punakazong (Punakha Dzong), located at the intersection of father, song and music, is Bhutan’s old palace, the country’s most beautiful Zong Bao. In 2011, the current King and Queen of Bhutan wedding here. The Guide says, if it’s sunny, can see the parent music and song presented two different colors, clear. (The song, and the river. )

Punakazong is only Zong Bao with a covered bridge.

Towering Buddhist temple.

End of the tour, through the bridge of time, suddenly heard shouts from the River, head a look, one floating on the river. River rapids, was a brave game. Do not know they are Bhutanese, or foreign visitors?

When we arrived at punakazong, the rain stopped. And by the time we left, and began to float the rain. We went to lunch, then prepare to wait for the rain to stop to visit qiemilakang Temple. In the restaurant, on a cousin’s iPhones have no WIFI, my Samsung phone is on, the original iPhone is not a panacea, is interesting.

Restaurant cat on the window sill, it was looking at what?

Meeting in dogs.

Find us, Hello!

Corn Soup is very tasty.

Rain has been slowly underground, we waited more than an hour in the restaurant, watching the rain didn’t mean to stop and had to start holding an umbrella.

Qiemilakang Temple is located on a hill, first through a beautiful rice fields, then a road, it takes about an hour or so. Because of the rain, the road across the field muddy. But this is not plain, was built in accordance with the mountain terraces, steep, it is difficult to take. We hesitate, just a few Chinese tourists come back, happened to be just seen in the morning and we live in the same hotel, was busy telling us, slippery hard, be careful, they had a partner accidentally fell down and got a mud. We immediately made the decision, told the tour guide we visited, the scenery here is beautiful, here photographed well.

The Guide says, he knew a good place to view, we went to the restaurant next to the rice field. The restaurant had a wall full of Windows, are facing the front of the qiemilakang Temple and the rice field and beautiful panoramic view. Quietly looking out the window, mountains, clouds, villages, rice fields, temples, everything is so quiet, peaceful, the mood also settled, is tranquil and peaceful. “Houses like, Liang Tian Mei Chi Sangzhu genus Criss traffic convenience”, the so-called paradise is probably the case.

Beauty of the dining-room window.

In the figure below, paddy fields on a hill above, nestled in green leaves, revealing only the Golden-roofed building, is the qiemilakang Temple. This photo was taken on the road, didn’t notice that after returning to organize photos when they found out.

Clouds hover, like fairyland.

Qiemilakang Temple, is in memory of “the madness of sages” Lama zhukakula Temple. Temple is very small, no small reputation, is said to have come here seeking work. Zhukakula a bit like any of our country, but bijigong madness, so many of his female followers are proud of making love with him. It is said that in ancient times of Bhutan, harsh living conditions, childbirth is a very difficult thing, so forming a worship of fertility, then the simple worship gradually evolved into a unique culture. This culture is particularly noticeable around the qiemilakang Temple in this area reflect. For example, monks in the Temple will gently beating worshippers with a wooden penis head, is the meaning of blessings. We went to see the scenery of the restaurant, Hall openly stands in the middle of a large wooden phallus. Around the shops, selling a variety of colors in various sizes of wooden phallus. On the walls of surrounding houses, and painted with various designs flying penises, is said to be evil refuge from fierce features. All this is stunning.

Enjoy the beautiful scenery is enough, we went to the ZANGTOPELRI hotel. Hotel was built on the Hill, lobby and guest rooms are separated, the room is a small hidden Villa. Rooms are decorated with wood, as if living in a small cabin, is very characteristic. There is also a small balcony, facing the endless green forest. Enough is that the room was a bit small, no WIFI, only to Internet access in the lobby. Surrounded by mountains, the scenery is very beautiful. Unfortunately, because of the rain, we would just go out to have a circle, took a few photos.

Diagram should be under a Tibetan-style Buddhist pagoda, but drew upon Nepal’s big eyes, at first glance, thought it was the Nepal Buddhist pagoda, is really creative.

The following figure is a mural, painted on the wall outside the room where we stayed, elephants, monkeys, rabbits and birds use the pyramid to pick the fruit on the tree. This fable is widespread in Bhutan, four friends, emphasized the virtues of cooperation, as well as creatures of various sizes and all the forces of nature in the natural cycle, linkages and interdependence among each other. This fable, both simple and profound.

So it seems that every national culture has two sides, profound spirit of the vulgar world.

Bhutan

DAY

5

Bhutan

The year 2014-09-22

September 22: return from the punaka Thimphu, on the way visit the 108 stupas, in Thimphu visited the national post office, Golden Buddha Zoo, the national monument and the top of the Tower, and then returned to Paro from Thimphu.

Breakfast.

At 7:30, still trickling down rain from the sky. I silently reviewed my character seems to rain for several days in Bhutan. Car for a while, gradually stopped raining, clouds fog, mountains reveals, several overlapping peaks, mist, like a long landscape painting, it is refreshing. Returning to the Sun on us through the window, the mood becomes crisp. The weather was fine, also after 108 stupas on the way back, this will see the beautiful scenery? Hearts to look forward to.

Road repair workers.

Nice truck, also drawn with big eyes.

When you drive to the duoxiongla mountain pass, and sure enough, the Eastern Himalayas and finally lift the veil of mystery, one has never seen a magnificent spectacle in front of us: the nearby mountains Emerald, Middle mountains such as Dai, the mountains in the distance is a strange blue, clouds dot the city. Kind of blue, to create an illusion, as if we were standing in the most secret recesses, at the foot of the blue sky. That feeling is really amazing, can’t exactly describe it in words. Such beauty, life is not seen, it’s amazing too shocking! Tour guides are also busy taking pictures with mobile phones. Listen to the tour guide said, often see clouds here, but beautiful clouds like today, it is rare. We cheered, all blue to nine night beyond the cloud, thanks to Bhutan gave us a pleasant surprise gift, this trip was not in vain.

The actual color more beautiful than the picture.

108 stupas like Wonderland.

What is thick white clouds?

Clouds deep in snow, it is known as the Mount Everest. Tour guide for us to see, cousin, and I stared but haven’t found, ask the tour guide helped me take a picture.

Views duoxiongla the pass was so amazing, we all drunk and distraught, looks can’t get enough, I wanted to stay away. The Guide says, do not go, it is necessary to delay the rest of the journey. We reluctantly left. At this time, the sunshine again hides in the clouds, the Himalayan mountains around the clouds more and more, over some of the peaks were covered, as one scene wearing a veil obscuring the peerless face. No wonder says, flowers are not always open, not Sunday. Fortunately, we arrived early, or you’ll miss the most beautiful scenery.

When it was getting to Thimphu, we saw the opposite Hill there is a Buddha, a very eye-catching, the Guide says we’ll go to visit. See Thimphu, gave me the impression different from last time. Thimphu as if the rain sleeping in the sleeping beauty’s Castle, Thimphu has been fully revived in the Sun. Construction site, streams of cars, pedestrians wearing national dress come and go, there are shown as a lively and bustling capital.

After arriving in Thimphu, we went to the national post office. Selling exquisite souvenirs such as postcards, stamps, fridge magnets, bookmarks, tourists can also be customised individual avatar stamps. I saw a few Western tourists in the purchase of commemorative stamps. National Post Office there’s a gift shop selling postcards, wood carving and other crafts and workmanship is very nice, the price is high.

Inside the post office postcard.

Currencies in the gift shop.

Lunch.

Tarkin (Takin), also known as Takin, is the State animal of Bhutan. Legends Mania gold Saint Lama zhukakula with animal bones to create a tower. Tarkin Zoo was built on the Hill, the road is a bit steep, climbing we were panting. Climb a Hill today, we feel unable to climb cave temple tomorrow, I really don’t know what Outlook is grim.

Deliberately left a square hole on the Zoo fence, convenient for visitors to put the camera into pictures and very user friendly.

The Guide says, is now seriously damaged the ecological environment, fewer and fewer number of wild takins. A few years ago, he accompanied United States movie star Leonardo to Zoo Tower gold, United Nations peace Ambassador, Leonardo is concerned about climate change. Listen to Leonardo said, in the West of China, also found wild takins group. Alas! Hope that man can spare them of wild animals and plants live.

Meet two Chinese tourists in the Zoo, happens to be met at Paro for lunch the day before yesterday the middle-aged couple, life is where not to meet.

National Monument, is not dansanshi King built the pagoda, is intended to commemorate World peace and prosperity. 1974 after completion of stupa, the King died. Pagoda became a King in honor of the late, also built the monument for world peace here Thimphu day ultimate place of the turret. We saw many turret people are the elderly, young people may be busy with work.

Great turning prayer wheels.

Eating pigeons.

Listen to the tour guide said, national monument this stupa belongs to the Tibetan-style Buddhist pagoda. Nepal Boda bumisegoro, is Nepal-style pagoda. “108 stupa”, is Bhutan-style pagoda. Three pagodas, various styles and distinctive.

South Mountain is located in Yanbu on the Buddha, height 42 meters, Bhutan and South Asia’s largest Buddha statue. Statues by Hong Kong and Singapore believers funded by China Nanjing chenguang machinery plant is responsible for casting construction. Buddha is said to be built in this way: first break at home with bronze casting various parts of the body, and then shipped to India, then transported by truck to Bhutan. Then build a statue of steel skeletons, then peers, splice complete different parts of the body, and finally polishing.

Wuxi lingshan Buddha in China, Sanya South China Sea three yin, famous statues such as the Tian Tan Buddha on Lantau Island in Hong Kong, are all designed and manufactured by China Nanjing chenguang machinery plant. The famous Buddha’s name, we often do not know who are the unsung heroes behind. Made in China, no longer just make those commodities, has been extended to many high-end sectors. This is really something to be proud of.

Buddha has not been completed, as well as temples and other ancillary works.

Standing on the observation deck, the entire Thimphu at a glance.

A butterfly suddenly fell in front of me and I quietly leans in to take pictures, it quietly lay still until I finish, it will slowly spread my wings and fly away.

Visit the big Buddha, we returned to Paro from Thimphu. While on the way to see the same landscape, but the feel is completely different. From Paro to Thimphu, when rainy or gives the impression is still cool. When returned to Paro from Thimphu, the Sun was shining, everything becomes lively and bright.

When it was getting to the Paro airport, happened to see a Bhutanese aviation landing plane, like a great white bird.

Our hotel was built on the Hill, the road is very bad, bumpy and rugged.

Just met school children.

Of great stars like little boys.

KHANKHU RESORT hotel in Paro, bright and spacious rooms, WIFI, as well as electric mosquito repellents and hair-dryer. In addition to the two bottles of purified water, and bagged black tea, green tea, coffee, etc, are all free. Electric heater to the wall, like heating in North China, even in the bathroom has electric heating, bath will not feel cold. Outside of the room have a balcony, facing the runway at Paro airport, and can see the mountains in the distance of Paro, picturesque.

The room we stayed.

The lobby of the hotel.

My cousin and I happily ran to the balcony to drink tea, Paro clean air to breathe and enjoy the pleasant landscape around, feel very comfortable. Didn’t think of, one of the guests invited. Soon, came second and third, they are attracted to our afternoon tea aroma to it?

While eating dinner, met a mission in China, Beijing, four people, including a monk, everyone called him “living Buddha”, I do not know from which temple. They also went to cave temple tomorrow, start earlier than we did.

Dinner.

Dessert, banana milk shake.

Dinner on my way back to my room, I took a look at the night sky, with a thin layer of clouds in the sky, can see few bright stars at the gap. Alas! Unable to see bright star, Mrs is very bad.

Bhutan

DAY

6

Bhutan

The year 2014-09-23

September 23: visit the cave temple and Temple of Catu.

Paro in the morning.

Get up in the morning, see sunny, cloudless blue sky, the mood also follow shine.

Suddenly heard the plane’s engine roar, rushed to the balcony and saw a passenger plane took off from the runway, farther, and finally disappeared in the top of the white clouds. It will fly to which countries?

7 o’clock breakfast was delicious.

Bhutan honey and jam.

We start at 8. Saw a plane ready to take off on the runway of the airport, the time flight is to fly to Kathmandu. Think tomorrow we’re going to take the flight to leave Bhutan, really have a different feeling in the heart.

Listen to the tour guide said, today is the last day of the rainy season, referred to as “blessed rainy day.” Bhutan holiday, national holiday. Many Bhutanese families family holiday, hiking and picnics. We listened, also seems to feel that kind of lively holiday atmosphere.

Den monastery (Taktshang Goemba) was founded in 1692, Padmasambhava is said to have rode a female Tiger Amita, was consecrated here, believers make pilgrimages to Bhutan. In 1998, the cave temple was destroyed in a fire, the cause of the fire remains a mystery. Subsequently, Bhutan for the whole country to rebuild cave temple, money, contribute. After seven years of painstaking reconstruction work, on March 24, 2005, the cave temple and finally completed rehabilitation, back to its former glory.

Come to the mountain and looked upward, cave temple built on top of the cliffs. Temple area is small, back against the cliff, a former Valley-carved like the Asgard, commanding, extraordinary momentum, really wonderful, amazing. Cave Temple in the mountain above the Paro Valley 900 meters above the ground, is very steep and the ground is almost vertical. In such a dangerous place to build the temple, it is difficult for Bhutanese have done it twice.

Looking up at the cave temple, I was nervous, there’s no confidence could climb. Because I am afraid of heights, climbing such activities have always been kept at a distance. I’ve climbed the highest mountain, is the heart of the Lotus mountain. Climb to the top, but more than 10 minutes, has tired me panting, sweating, and lost his eye. Lotus mountain and cave temple than just a trickle. Cave Temple, is not known to be many times more dangerous.

Mountain horse rental, there are stalls selling arts and crafts, and sticks for sale. Tourists can ride up. Cousin asked me if I want to buy pieces of wood when the sticks, my heroic air clouds, waved his hand and said no. After climbing a mountain, I regretted it. This mountain is largely maintained its original state without guardrails or stairs. A mountain path, winding spiral, while the cliffs, while the cliffs, never seems to be no end. Two days ago, just after the rain, some areas muddy, steep, difficult, what we can grasp branches of vines on the steep climb leveraging. Though cousin went to a number of mountains, such as mount Tai, Hua Shan, Mount Huangshan, and so on, but are sitting up in the cable car. Like this truly “mountain climbing”, is also the first time. Climbing for a while my heart beat like a drum, feel a great burden. And today the Sun is very bright, Sun-we straight out. So climb a, find the shade to rest for a while.

Look at our tour guide, people like a stroll, very easily. Sometimes climb, while watching the phone. We went in the side of the road, the tour guide outside. That’s on the edge of the cliff! See me sweat, tour guides are admired. This is daredevil!

Babbling brook.

Mountain road, this section of road is good to go.

Standing under the shade of a tree was our tour guide.

When I stopped to have a rest, just enjoy the beautiful mountain scenery. Today the weather is sunny, blue sky is like a crystal clear and clean, in the backdrop, clouds are white, forest green, like a brightly colored painting, very enjoyable.

A visitors eye, accompanied by the Guide go into, almost half on horseback and on foot. Mountain horse, not the kind of horse, may be ponies, carrying tourists, halting climb, horse owners and tour guides on the side. Horses have when close to the cliff walk, see me tremble, lest they let slip away. Visitors on foot, manning a trekking poles or sticks, with two trekking poles in European and American tourists, fully equipped. Accompanied by guides, in his hand with one or two long-handled umbrellas. This umbrella is really good, can both climb and rain. There is a young tour guide, leaning on two long-handled umbrella in his hand, sweat, stop and say hello to our tour guide, also in Chinese and we said with a smile: “you. “Look, most especially of our mission, traveling light, with nothing, nothing.

Halfway up, when met a group down the horses. Guide nimble, pull to the side of us stood on the stone. The Guide says, when horses down, due to the inertia of a mobile, very dangerous, people should try to avoid to high, or they have run afoul of not playing. Tourists can ride up the mountain, down the mountain on foot only.

Mountain loop, and cave temple is also disappearing, is like a lighthouse in the sea, for people who worship directions, cheered.

In this way, stop-and-go stops to rest, never give up, never give up, we finally managed to climb to the viewing platform halfway up. Others about an hour, we spent two hours. Although a bit of face, but what is important is not a procedure, but to the results. And never climbed a mountain for fear of us, have achieved a significant victory. Hey, hey.

Green is gold,let us Preserve it! Please don’t litter,keep clean,Enioy the nature.

 

Viewing platform there is a restaurant, the mountain where visitors have some refreshments to add strength, down visitors for lunch.

 

Viewing platform across the cave temple, many visitors are here to rest and take photos. The largest of these is a Taiwan mission, there are more than 10 people, all elderly, you take pictures of me, I take your photograph, and hold timer to all the photo than the young had a hi.

Cave temple.

Also the photographer’s cousin. Cousin has a passion for photography, most of my travel photos were taken by my cousin, nothing in technical content, a few of the photos are taken by me.

Beautiful birds.

Flower mouse.

Beautiful flowers.

Good tea and biscuits on the table, we sat down in the Chair, a dog came running up, eagerly watching us. Looking at its cute appearance, and pleasing little eye contact, we naturally cannot bear to let it down, had a cookie to it. Dog swallowed the cookie, then helplessly watched us. Well, another piece. Then came a dog and gave it a. See dogs more and more restaurants ran away, the boss of them. We ate the cookies left as soon as possible. Cookie is limited, sorry, dogs.

Eat cookies, first came the dog not to leave, but we were lying on the table. My cousin and I got up to go to the bathroom, the dog suddenly jumped up, rushed from between us in the past, cousin crashed into a stagger. It is really big. It ran in front of us and drove us to the bathroom. It is in our way, please? It wants to reward us for cookies? Is a magical feeling.

Built on a cliff on the toilet, went in with only two quivering.

Tour guide asked us if we continue to the cave temple, later the road more difficult. We answer in unison: not to go! Tour guide laughed knowingly.

Other tourists on the stairs, continue to the cave temple.

 

Tour guide took us down another path, this path was cut, but very steep. My fear of heights and complete attack, feeling dizzy, very difficult. Cousin is also a bit afraid, can barely walk. I think the ears guide lend a helping hand in time, so I grabbed him by the shoulders. Tour just backs up a backpack, I also ignored what shame no shame, you’re welcome to grab the bag. I have to pull the cousin, cousin says no, she can go. On a guided tour with the help of, I finally came down the mountain safely. Hill took only an hour, I was sweating. Look back at the cave temple, feeling suddenly like a dream. Decided to return to a great pity, but from a security point of view, this is a wise decision.

I think my cousin may be the only one to climb the cave temple and visitors, creating records on the history of tourism in Bhutan. Hey, hey.

Cousin has been strange, why don’t cave temple cable car. I think, first, is to protect the environment and, secondly, cave temple is a Buddhist holy land, mountain adventures, was used to test the worship of man’s religion of the heart. Like Tang master, not after 9,981 difficult, how to get Canon.

Restaurant.

Welcoming restaurant in front of the cat.

Lunch.

Restaurant next to the rice fields.

After lunch, we visit the Catu Temple (Kyichu Lhakang). Catu Temple is the oldest monastery in Bhutan, is a pair of temple building. The first temple was built by songtsen Gampo in 638 ad. Before the temple there is an orange tree, the Guide says, this is a orange tree can bring money in. If you stand under a tree, Orange fall, you can catch it, you’re going to get rich. We curiously under the orange tree stood for a moment, some oranges have been shaky, but not fall. Never mind, rich it doesn’t matter, go on the line.

Orange tree can bring money in.

Back at the hotel, we feel his throat almost smoking, ask tour guide hotel there is no fruit, we wanted to buy something to eat, today it is enough. Tour guides to discuss it with the front desk, said hotels will give us ready to fruit, will bring us to the room and is free of charge. We were overcome with joy, thanks again and again.

Return to the room, we want Internet access, found that there was no WIFI signal. Router hangs from the balcony of our room on the right, cousin to the balcony to see for a while, the router didn’t open. We decided to go to the lobby to ask, I am a bit worried about, said he could not understand. Until I just said one sentence: “Excuse me,WiFi …” waiter nodded and said see, asked about our room number and invited us back to the waiting room. We will happily go back.

Not long back, WIFI signal, and bowls are also sent. We are making two cups of tea, afternoon tea on the terrace. Just sit for a while, it was suddenly dark down, I do not know when the clouds and blowing wind, feel the chill. We go from outdoor to indoor. Look at cave temple of the sky, Yin is more severe, there must be rain. Once the rain, mountain roads more difficult, not by glad we’ve come back.

Fruit, banana, Apple, and watermelon.

Atmosphere.

The evening, a light cloud just out of soapstone.

When eating dinner, also met the eminent monks of the Beijing mission. Asked if we didn’t go to the cave temple, said they visited the temple all the halls, some of which are open to tourists Buddha they visited. We say go, and ask if they cave temple there rain? They say that rain is just downhill, they met. Said say they feel something wrong, we laughed and told the truth, tell them things that we decided to return.

Today’s dinner buffet, very good, taste is also very good, we had a lot of fun. One dish is fish, very fresh and delicious, even I don’t like to eat fish people eat are full of praise.

    Dessert.

 

Night I had nightmares, dream cave temple on the precipice, I teetered on the edge of the cliff, dreams are filled with tension and fear. This dream has done for two days. I resolved never to climb again later, heights of the people can’t afford it.

Bhutan

DAY

7

Bhaktapur Durbar square > Naga width

The year 2014-09-24

September 23: never danpaluo to fly to Nepal Kathmandu, visit Bard gang, from Bhaktapur to Naga wide.

6 departure to the airport, Breakfast packages. When I see the Guide, I almost didn’t recognize him. Guide the first time without wearing national dress, but put on a casual wear. We used to see the guides wearing national dress, suddenly saw his casual, feel shines, we praise a guide immediately. Original tour guide took us away, he can leave, he has not rested for a long time. Work must wear national dress, leave no. Tour guide said he would even take a few days until 11, there will be many Chinese tourists to come to Bhutan, by which time he was busy.

Packed breakfast.

I have been thinking back to Nepal when able to get a seat by the window on the right side, so please guide wrote in a note. Guides written in English, and I thought he was going to write in Bhutan. Check in time to pass the message to staff, after she saw the smile, really put us on the right side of the window. Although the seat right next to the wing, location is not very good, is better than no change to strong! We are very happy, something in person, in the day, the following weather not to force a.

Waiting room filled with all kinds of cute stickers on the doors and Windows.

The aircraft also met the eminent monks of the Beijing mission. After breakfast at the hotel before they set off, a little late to the airport, so there is no change to the seat on the right. See us on the right side of the window and surprised and admired. So, the early bird catches the worm. Hey, hey.

Today the weather is also good, the plane took off on time. I’ve been looking out of the window, afraid to miss anything. When the first snow-capped mountains on the horizon when boiling the whole cabin. Passengers had brought out the window on the right camera, sitting on the left of the passengers craned their necks to look on the right side. My cousin and busy yourself first, and then help of passengers sitting on the left to take, very busy. Laughter and noise in the cabin, passengers have an exclamation point: value value! This trip too!

Radio on the plane we don’t understand, take after, do not know where is Mount Everest.

Cold pull out, straight into the sky.

Towering majestic snow-capped mountains, at this point, like a piece of rolling hills in the snow, like a fairy tale world.

Clouds slowly engulfed the mountain.

After the plane landed, we had hundreds of customs, and tour guides meet. Tour guides did not change, but the driver has changed, also changed a little. Driver is young, tall, strong, swarthy. Cocked his head and look at our luggage into the car, do not help. Of course, driver had no obligation to help the tourist luggage, but no gentleman. We missed the previous drivers.

Bhaktapur is friendly to Chinese tourists, Chinese passport holders to buy tickets at a special rate. And the Chinese version of introduction to Bhaktapur, unlike Boda bumisegoro introduction and Kathmandu Durbar square is the English version. Faced with such a friendly city, how can you do something about it was good.

“Even if nothing in Nepal, Bhaktapur Durbar square is still worth using global travel half the distance of the place. “This is the first paragraph begins with the introduction of Bhaktapur in.

Bhaktapur is an ancient city with a long history, its history can be traced back to the 8th century. We visit Durbar square and datazhuoya square, Tao Madi square, pottery. Compared to the lively bustle of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur is clean and quiet. Stroll the city, there is a clock, a throwback to medieval Nepal.

I really like the atmosphere of Bhaktapur, if we can live here all day, a closer Nepal people’s everyday life is good.

Bhaktapur Durbar square main entrance.

Bhaktapur Durbar square, compared with Kathmandu’s Durbar square, is spacious and neat, not many buildings. In fact many years ago, is building on the square-lined, in 1934 a major earthquake, many buildings were badly damaged. Square reconstruction through re-planning, many older buildings are not repaired, disappearing forever in history, it’s really a shame.

 

Wasitaladuer aka Temple (Vastala Durga Temple), which is close to mother Durga, that is Shiva’s wife, Parvati, dur, aka is one of her incarnations, is famous for its powerful demons. On the temple steps flanked by stone sculptures of elephants and lions, next to the elephant has been nicknamed “the barking clock” clock was built in 1721, it is said that bell rang, they heard a dog barking. This stone building was the Temple of India xikehala (Shikhara) architecture, the sculpture above is very beautiful, unique in the many brick and wood buildings. Unfortunately, completely collapsed in the earthquake.

     Temple next to the sink basin.

   

  FACHE Temple (Fasidega Temple), is a white building, here are six-storey red-brick base, which is near the mother of husband-Shiva. Temple stairs on both sides from the top down into the bull, the lion and the elephant statue. The temple top collapsed in the earthquake, the base parts of statues to retain.

 

Shiva temple (Shiva Temple), built in 1674, dedicated to the God Shiva is still. As India mythology the highest deity, Shiva temples all over Nepal all regions. The temple top collapsed in the earthquake.

 

Xidi·lakeximi Temple is a stone Temple. A highlight of the temple is the lifelike statues on both sides of steps, broken down into male and female servants (each holding a baby and a lifelike dogs), horses, wearing a Garland of rhino, faces lion beast, and camels.

 

Narayan Vishnu temples, stone pillar in front of the temple is a statue of Jia Lu TU stone, this stone aka Lu TU than smaller statue on the Kathmandu Durbar square. Bhaktapur-the tea as well as Lu are located on pillars.

Pasupa Temple is dedicated to Shiva. Appearance and Narayan Vishnu Temple is very similar.

Columns of the temple sex engraved on wood carving.

Bhaktapur Royal bupatingdela·mala King’s statue, facing the Golden Gate.

 

The Golden Gate and the Palace of 55 Windows. Palace of 55 Windows, as the name suggests is the Palace has 55 fine wood window. The Golden Gate is the gateway to the Palace, is a beautifully cast, glittering gilt bronze doors.

    Four ten-arm Taleju.

 

Bhaktapur Royal Palace once with 99 yards, a large scale. Now only 7 yards, open to tourists only a fraction.

 

Beautifully carved wooden doors and Windows.

 

The doors and Windows of metal casting.

 

Inner courtyard of the Palace of the Royal baths, is said to have built in 17th century, Stone Snake twisted coiled around, there are two echoes the Cobra statue. See Cobra, I think of Egypt.

    Vagarious outlet.

 

Forest land next to the pool.

 

Tao Madi on the square, there is a very striking building. It high, majestic, with “all mountains in a single glance” attitude overlooks the square of all living things, is amazing. It is Gnata Paula Temple.

Gnata Paula Temple (Nyatapola Temple), also known as “five-story tower.” Niyatabola is the “five-storey” means. Five-storey temple built a five-story base and eaves, is Tao Madi square (Taumadhi) tallest building, Nepal the highest Hindu temple is the Newale building in the classics. Introduction to Bhaktapur is printed on the cover of this temple.

Temple was built in 1702, dedicated to the Hindu tantra goddess Xidi·lakeximi (Siddhi Lakshmi), also known as “lucky girl”. She was the wife of the God Vishnu, Director of happiness and wealth. Breakdown on both sides of the steps leading to the Temple of five on the huge stone statues, in order from the bottom diamond Lux, elephants, Lions, eagles and the goddess. Diamond Lux has 10 times the power of ordinary people, the elephant’s strength is King Kong cialis 10 times, and so on, stone 10 times power increases, until the temple’s Pelden Lhamo. The highest temple-built very sturdy, Nepal did not suffer much damage in a major earthquake, it is amazing.

Steps of the temple and some steep, a bit like the steps of Angkor Wat in Cambodia. Reminds me there is mention in the travelogue scenery above the temple, suddenly the mind a hot, also wanted to go, and despite the opposition of cousin climbed alone. Standing at the top of the temple, was open, could see rolling mountains in the distance. I also began to feel dizzy and had to hold the pillars stand honestly, not to go around. When I think, looking at the steep steps do not know how to be good. This time, unlike in Cambodia’s Angkor Wat are you keen to encourage, or elephant cave temple, there are guided tours in Bhutan’s help, this time, can only rely on my own. I take a bunch of images, and sat down at the top of the steps, move slowly down, moved to the stone statue of the goddess locations, hold the stone stood up, and then step down to the location of the second beast, and so on, and finally back to the ground. How indescribably happy, I challenge your limits, and succeeded. Fear once again, I don’t feel regret, or you’ll regret it. Just don’t know my unique way down the steps, there is no other camera views. Hope no one noticed me. Hey, hey.

 

Stand high and see far.

 

Used to have sheep son beat me to it. You are slow sheep or a goat?

 

Gnata Paula Temple next to Bhairab Temple (Bhairabnath Temple), dedicated to Shiva. Its history than earlier Gnata Paula Temple, originally made for the single-storey building. Bhairab is the terror of Shiva, one of the legends lucky girl power can restrain Bhairab supernatural power, so in order to make Shiva’s appearance is not so scary, Malla Kings beside it built five-storey Gnata Paula Temple. The King at the same time the Bhairab Temple was repaired, converted into two layers. In 1934 earthquake and Pakistan Iraq almost destroyed the temple, later rebuilt and added a layer, is now a three-tier.

 

Pottery Plaza, is a unique square Bhaktapur. Ceramics is one of the world’s oldest profession, pottery in Bhaktapur on the square, there are many potters still use traditional wooden wheel making all kinds of pottery and clay. It is said that Nepal 70% pottery comes from here, Bhaktapur also known as the pottery capital.

    All kinds of ceramic arts and crafts.

 

At the pottery restaurant for lunch in the square, color, aroma and taste.

 

Famous Bhaktapur yogurt, known as “the King of yogurt”, mellow taste.

 

From the Windows of the restaurants overlooking the pottery square.

 

Dattatraya Temple located on datazhuoya square (Dattatreya Temple), entrance to the temple there are two diamond Lux, broken down around the traditional instruments used in wheel of Vishnu Bao and Triton, stone column there is a statue of Jia LU on the mandala.

 

Peacock window, Nepal classics in wood carving, as the “most beautiful Windows in the Kathmandu Valley.” The most famous and oldest Peacock window, hidden in the alley next to the datazhuoya square. This old building originally built by King yakexiya·mala in the early 15th century, despite hundreds of years of wind and rain, the Peacock on the window still vivid.

 

Along the landscape.

 

Leave the Bard gang, visiting Naga wide. It began to rain on the way, and mixed with small hail, arrived at the hilltop Hotel raining harder and harder. I have to say, we and the rain it was destined. Alas! I reviewed his character.

Naga width (Nagarkot) is 30 km east of Kathmandu, 2100 meters above sea level, known as the Himalayan Observatory said. When the weather was clear and visibility was clear, looking across the Himalayas, lined more than more than 20 high and low mountains, like a belt across the horizon, a splendid sight.

Naga width is also good place to watch the sunset and sunrise, but today the situation is sure to see the sunset, sunrise in the morning for sure.

Snow Mountain where? Hidden in the mist.

 

NIVA NIWA LODGE lobby and guest rooms of the hotel are separated, we are located below the lobby living room, down a flight of steps, pushed open a wooden door, is a windowless corridor, about five or six guest rooms, our rooms in the outside. Room has one wall is a window, out of the window is a viewing platform. Room was small, no WIFI, only to Internet access in the lobby. No kettle, to take hot water bottle to the lobby, water bottle is not insulated, went to look cool in the hot water didn’t last long. No air conditioning and no heat. Water heater solar power, turn on the tap, and transferred to the hot water, the flow out of the barely warm water, or take a shower. Here’s the really weird thing: I had no TV. We met for the first time without a television in the hotel. According to the tour guide said, this hotel’s main aim is to see the Sunrise, so humble facilities.

Not long after, snapped power outage. After a while, snapped and electricity. In a little while, power outage, call … I suddenly understood why this hotel has no television, in accordance with the frequency of blackouts, all electrical will be short-lived. Therefore, the room closest to prepare several candles on the table.

Steps leading to our living rooms.

 

Is located in the top of the room, looking very nice look, I want to know, there is no TV in the room.

 

A cat.

    Far from the hotel.

Have dinner in the restaurant in the hotel lobby at night, but visitors also. The largest of these is a Taiwan mission, there are more than 10 people, fight a big table. Trip the many Taiwan mission. Too many tourists, and essentially not WIFI. We ate half of the time, and another one in Shanghai, are elderly people, this restaurant is more lively.

Dinner.

Back to my room and dinner. This row of rooms, as if only the living people, and it was kind of scary. Before long, and come in a number of tourists, is the Shanghai elderly groups. Elderly residents curious to come and visit, they are coming in on Pokhara, Kathmandu is tomorrow.

No TV to watch, see some flat, not too long, and was afraid of running out, tomorrow on the plane with them. Room was cold, and we huddled in bed chatting, Miss Bhutan electric heating at the hotel to discuss tomorrow the rain will stop, if you can see the sunrise. This is the first time we watch the sunrise in the mountain, really looking forward to it.

Early to bed before going to bed, we lit a candle and put it in the tub in the bathroom. That place is safe and will not cause a fire. 200% power outages during the night. Turns out, our hunch is absolutely correct.

Bhaktapur Durbar square

Naga width

DAY

8

Naga width
> Kathmandu Valley > Kunming

The year 2014-09-25

September 25: from the jiakuote returned to Kathmandu, shopping in Tamil, left Nepal flying to Kunming.

Sleep well at night. Early this morning were aroused by the voice, careful listening, is the home for the elderly of Shanghai. Wake is power off. Opened the curtains and saw the rain had stopped, it was hazy, the clouds in the sky and thick, old people had gathered waiting for up to the viewing platform. Yesterday saw the cat out, drill to drill through the crowd, with people waiting for the sunrise. Well, this is a cat that loves life.

Come to the viewing platform, found feet is the magnificent sea of clouds. Clouds of white light to flow between the peaks, like a dream fantasy, beautiful. Not thinking of a poem: “the bright moon lifts from the mountain of heaven, in an infinite haze of cloud and sea. “If the words” Sunrise from the mountain, in an infinite haze of cloud and sea. “Image. Even though you can’t see the Sunrise, look at the clouds as well. Gradually, the sky begins to put on a wonderful magic show. Clouds gradually exposing the cracks, the Sun hides behind the clouds, its light had rendered clouds around colorful, magnificent pulled. As clouds move, the snow-covered mountains appear in the distance, silhouetted against the blue sky, full of majestic majestic power. Viewing platform people pointed excitedly, continue to press the shutter to capture every beautiful moment.

Light red in the peak of the snow-capped mountains in the distance.

Magnificent pulled. The sky, like a huge color palette …

Xiaguangwandao.

A large cloud, always in front of the Sun. Like a beautiful woman, has been reluctant to lift the veil of cover.

Ambilight.

Sky blue was so pure and lovely.

Valley in the clouds.

Eating breakfast when the sun shines through the window, should be fine today.

 

The saying goes: shit happens. When we started, the Sun has disappeared, the whole world is shrouded in white clouds, mountain hotel is like a mirage, we, like fairyland. Driving down the mountain when it was kind of the feeling of walking on. Everything is so beautiful, and so not true, seemed but a dream.

It occurred to me that an idiom: yunshanwuzhao, described the Naga width is visualized.

On his way to Canada, finally saw the light, it’s rare.

After returning to Kathmandu, we in the Tamil region (Thanmel) freely. Tamil zone is a great place to shop, row upon row of shops, and lively. We bought this refrigerator magnets, postcards, and a few small mementos. Nepal shopping, remember a Word, it is “cut”. My cousin and I are not good at bargaining, we refer to the domestic price, almost on the line, and quit when you are ahead.

In the Tamil areas, Chinese restaurants everywhere.

In Nepal the last lunch.

After lunch, the tour guide took us to the airport. Thought of leaving Nepal, it’s a little reluctant to do.

Aircraft took off on schedule, which is hard.

Goodbye, Nepal.

After arriving in Kunming, and out of the airport, found Pepsi’s paradise Airlines Hotel Shuttle. Is a five-star hotel, the new soon, just a few minutes ‘ drive from the airport. Rooms are spacious and well-equipped. Unfortunately, we only stay one night, too late to feel.

Brightly lit airport.

 

Naga width

The Kathmandu Valley

Kunming

DAY

9

Kunming > Shanghai

The year 2014-09-26

September 26: flying from Kunming to Shanghai.

5 o’clock get up sleepy-eyed, 6, take the hotel’s shuttle bus to the airport. Only when I get my boarding pass was told that original MU5801 has been cancelled, changed it to MU5837,9 take off points. We are very angry, flight change is right, but why no one informed us? We were not getting enough sleep, if you know the flight ahead, will be able to sleep for a while, there’s less to the airport early. Airline service is not in place by now.

MU5837 late, stopped in anshun, Guizhou huangguoshu airport. Stopped for more than 10 minutes, we did not sit in the huangguoshu airport terminal, and hurried to Board. After a lot of agonizing, the plane finally landed at Shanghai’s HongQiao airport, feeling like a shelf. Despite this unpleasant episode, still will not affect our good mood back home.

Kunming

Shanghai

Third, the PostScript: the

The Kingdom of Bhutan, the Sanskrit term for “Tibet’s border.” Bhutan since 8th century Tibetan tribe, after the unification of Tibet in Yuan dynasty, under the jurisdiction of xuanzheng Yuan, independence until the Qing dynasty, so the influence of Tibetan culture.

Listening to the tour guide said of Bhutanese and Tibetan text the same aspects of language, Bhutan’s Chinese name is Dzongkha, belongs to the Tibetan dialects, they did not really understand Tibetan in China, Tibetans can understand their language.

Guide also told us that his home in a small village, he has never returned after working out. If you go back, the village of men, women and children came to see him, and he wants to give all people the red hair! Haha, didn’t think the village there is the custom of Bhutan, unless they made a fortune, or who dare go back Ah.

The father of the present King of Bhutan, the old King had abdicated, a visionary. He believes that “policy should focus on happiness, and happiness as the goal of” life “the fundamental issue is how the material (including the benefits of science and technology) and maintain a balance between the spiritual life”. Under the guidance of this idea, creatively put forward by the Government of Bhutan to good governance, economic growth, cultural development and environmental protection levels consisting of “gross national happiness (GNH).” Countries committed to improving “gross national happiness (GNH)”, rather than the pursuit of “gross domestic product (GDP)”, claims to be the world’s happiest country of Bhutan.

I did not ask the tour guide he is happy, because everyone’s heart, very different standard of welfare. But the old King’s “gross national happiness”, is indeed worthy of our serious consideration.

Four, concluding remarks:

 

Last fall, my cousin and I was going to go to Japan, read the travels when, in the summer of the snow on Mount Fuji! No snow-covered Mount Fuji, like removing the make-up girl, becomes nondescript. Disappointed we had to change the trip, went to Nepal and Bhutan. But inadvertently planted willow, in retrospect, is incredibly grateful to Nepal. While regret, regret it when you visit look fine enough, missed a lot of things, photos are enough, not wide enough.

The saying goes: variable in life, things change. If you have a favorite travel destination, don’t hesitate, don’t wait, take the time to go. Because the flowers are not always open, not Sunday, once missed, probably forever.

Travel is so, so is life.

 

I wrote the following Viet Nam Cambodia travel, interested friends can go and see:

“Viet Nam Cambodia” June bloom, the Phoenix flowers (travel + best pictures)

http://bbs.tuniu.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=358174&extra=page%3D2

~THE END~

Sony PS VR price exposure 3272

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Sony PS VR price exposure: 3272

Now e-commerce platform Microspot surprint PlayStation VR presale pages, priced at 498 Swiss francs (equivalent to RMB 3272), delivery time is June 30, 2016. In response, Sony has not responded. However, the smooth finish of the purchasing process, therefore, the price is likely to be true. case Moschino

Sony PS VR price exposure: 3272

Earlier, Canada Amazon’s official page showing PlayStation Sony VR sale price was c $ 1125.35 (US $ 774, 5095 Yuan), release date is December 31, 2016. But Sony later denied this statement, Sony said it appears Amazon Web problems, the company has not yet announced specific prices.

PlayStation VR is equipped with a 5.7-inch OLED screen, 120Hz 1920×1080 resolution, refresh rate, delay, 18ms, angle of 100 degrees; in addition, realized with 9 LED 360 ° head tracking, using acceleration sensors and gyroscopes to achieve motion capture and 3D sound effects enhance the experience. Happy is that PlayStation VR has HDMI and USB interface. Moschino iPhone 6 Plus Case

Sony PS VR price exposure: 3272

Tips

case Moschino

Sony PS VR price exposure: 3272
Sony PS VR price exposure: 3272

Micro sweep sweep, author tips bar ~

Machine learning statistics and calculation of love

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Lei feng’s network (search for “Lei feng’s network” public attention): transfer from statistics in this article are. Original from Zhang assured the teachers in the ninth China r conferences and sorted out in two lectures at Shanghai Jiaotong University. Zhang assured the teacher is Professor of computer science and engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, part-time Professor of Shanghai Jiao Tong University data centre for scientific research, double the discipline of computer science and technology, and the statistics of doctoral students guidance tutor. Prior to joining the Shanghai Jiaotong University, Professor, school of computer science, Zhejiang University and Zhejiang University Science Center Adjunct Professor of statistics. Teachers mainly engaged in artificial intelligence, machine learning and applied statistics teaching and research in the field so far in international academic journals and published more than 70 papers on important computer science Conference, is the United States, “mathematical reviews” guest commentator, flagship publication International machine learning Executive Editorial Board of the Journal of Machine Learning Research. The open class of the introduction to machine learning and statistical machine learning, attracted widespread attention.

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Recent strong rise of artificial intelligence and machine learning, particularly this past AlphaGo and Korea player Li Shishi section of the man-machine war, once again we appreciate the vast potential of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies, but also deeply touched me. Faced with this unprecedented technological revolution, as more than 10 years has been engaged in statistical machine learning, teaching and research scholar, would like to take this opportunity to share with you some of my personal thoughts and reflections.

Machine learning: statistics and calculation of love

My speech will mainly consist of two parts, in the first part, begin with very contained in machine learning, in particular disciplines, such as statistics, computer science, operations research and optimization links, as well as its relations with industry, entrepreneurship community complement each other. In the second part, try to use “multiple” and “Adaptive” and “average” concepts such as numerous and colorful simplicity machine learning model and calculation method of some research ideas or thoughts behind.

Part one: review and reflection

1, what is the machine learning

Needless to say, big data, and AI is the most fashionable word, they will bring profound changes in our lives in the future. Data is the fuel, smart is the goal, while machine learning is a rocket, leading to the smart way. Machine learning gurus Mike Jordan and Tom Mitchell think machine learning is the intersection of computer science and statistics, and is at the core of artificial intelligence and data science.

“It is one of today’s rapidly growing technical fields, lying at the intersection of computer science and statistics, and at the core of artificial intelligence and data science” —M. I. Jordan

Informally, from data mining machine learning is useful value. The data itself is dead, it does not automatically give a useful information. How to find out the value of things? The first step is to an abstract representation for data, based on modeling and estimation of model parameters, which is calculated, in order to tackle the problem of massive data, we need to design some efficient measures.

I interpret this process to matrix + statistics + optimization + machine learning algorithms. First of all, when is defined as an abstract data representation, tend to form a matrix, or a figure, and in fact also can be understood as the matrix. Statistics is the primary tool for modeling and ways, and most of the model is defined as a problem, in particular, the frequency of statistical method is actually a optimization problem. Of course, the random sampling methods for Bayesian model of computation involved. But when it comes to big data problems specific to, need some efficient way, in computer science, algorithms and data structures in a number of good tips can help us solve this problem.

Learn from Marr’s three levels on the definition of computer vision, machine learning too, I was divided into three levels: elementary, intermediate and advanced. Primary stage is the data capture and feature extraction. Intermediate stage is data processing and analysis, it and contains three a aspects, first is application problem oriented, simple to said, it main application has some model and method solution some actual problem, we can understanding for data mining; second, according to application problem of need, proposed and development model, and method and algorithm and research support they of mathematics principle or theory based,, I understanding this is machine learning subject of core content. Third, by reasoning to reach some kind of intelligence. Finally, the high stage is intelligent and cognitive, namely achieving smart goals. From here, we can see that data mining and machine learning is essentially the same, the difference is more grounded in data mining database, while machine learning is closer to the intelligent side.

2, statistics and computing

Machines usually have the computing power and intuition to solve the problem, and statisticians is longer than the theoretical analysis, strong modeling capability and, therefore, there is good complementarity.

Boosting, SVM is a statistical machine learning and sparse learning community, nearly 20 years or in the last ten years, the most active of the direction, now it’s hard to say who is doing more of them. For example, SVM’s theory is in fact very early by Vapnik and came up, but the computer industry has invented an effective algorithm, and then has a lot of code have been open source for everyone to use, and SVM classification algorithm becomes a benchmark model. For example, KPCA is composed of computer scientists presented a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method, which is equivalent to the classical MDS. While the latter in the statistical community is very early, but if there are no newly discovered computers, some good things may be buried.

Machine learning has now become a mainstream direction of statistics, many famous statistics at recruited Dr as a teacher in the field of machine learning. Calculation in the statistics has become more and more important, traditional multivariate statistical analysis is matrix-calculation tools, modern high-dimensional statistics is to optimize the calculation tool. The other hand, the computer science advanced statistical courses, core courses such as statistics “experience”.

We’ll look at what kind of machine learning in computer science. Recently this has not been published in the book “the Foundation of Data Science, by Avrim Blum, John Hopcroft, and Ravindran Kannan,” co-author John Hopcroft Turing Award winner. In the front part of this book, refers to the development of computer science can be divided into three stages: early, middle and modern. Early is to make computers up and running, its focus lies in the development of programming languages, compiler theory, operating systems, as well as research supporting their mathematical theories. Medium-term is for computers to become useful, handy. Focus on algorithms and data structures. The third phase is to let computers have a wide range of applications, the development emphasis from discrete mathematics to probability and statistics. That we have seen, the third stage is actually of interest to machine learning.

Now the computer industry called machine learning “universal subjects”, it’s ubiquitous. On one hand, machine learning has its own disciplinary system; it also on the other hand, there are two important features of radiation. One is for applied science provide ways and means to solve the problem. Popular point that, for an applied science, machine learning is difficult translate mathematics into some pseudo code that allows engineers to write programs. Second, for some traditional disciplines, such as statistics, theoretical computer science, operations research optimization finds new research questions.

3, machine learning and development implications

History tells us of machine learning: development of a discipline requires a pragmatic approach. Trendy concepts to the popularity of the subject and name has a certain role, but discipline is the research question, methods, techniques and support base, and generate value for society.

Machine learning is a cool name, simply follow literally, its purpose is to enable the machine to like people with the ability to learn. But in front we by see of, in its 10 years of gold development period, machine learning territories and no too much to hype “intelligent”, but more to concern Yu introduced statistics, to established subject of theory based, oriented data analysis and processing, to no supervision learning and has supervision learning for two big main of research problem, proposed and development has series model, and method and calculation algorithm,, effective to solution industry by faced of some actual problem. In recent years, owing to data-driven and dramatically increase of computing power, a number of infrastructure-oriented machine learning has been developed, advanced neural network of strong rise to industry brought a profound change and opportunity.

Machine learning also illustrate the importance and necessity of interdisciplinary. To know each other, however this is not a simple noun or concept can be, is the need for real melted through. Professor Mike Jordan is the leading computer scientist and leading Statistician, so he is able to bear the burden of establishing statistical machine learning. And he’s very pragmatic, not to mention devoid of concepts and frameworks. The way he follows from the bottom up, that is, models, methods, algorithms and other specific issues, then step by step systematic. Professor Geoffrey Hinton is the world’s most famous cognitive psychologist and computer scientist. Although his early achievements, reputation for excellence in the academic world, but he has been active in the front line, write your own code. Many of the ideas he is simple, practical and very effective, so is known as a great thinker. Thanks to his wise and the practice, advanced learning technology ushered in a revolutionary breakthrough. Cath Kidston galaxy note 3 cover

Machine learning is also compatible and accept the discipline. We can say that the machine learning from academia, industry, business community (or race), work together to create. Academia is the engine industry is driven is the vitality and future of the industry. Academia and industry should have their respective responsibilities and Division of labour. Academic responsibility is to build and develop discipline of machine learning, training the specialists in the field of machine learning and large projects, projects should be more market-driven, from industry to implement and complete.

Part II: a few simple ideas

In this section, my attention returned to the study of machine learning. Machine learning with substantial content, and new methods and new technologies are continually being made, were found. Here, I try to “tunnel” and “Adaptive” and “average” concepts such as numerous and colorful simplicity machine learning model and calculation method for some of the ideas and thinking behind. I hope all of you understand some machine learning models, methods and inspirations for future research.

1. multistage (Hierarchical)

First of all, let us concerns “tunnel” the idea. Specifically, we look at three examples.

The first example is the underlying data model, it is a multilevel model. As an extension of probabilistic graphical models, implicit data model is one of the most important methods of multivariate data analysis. Latent variable has three important characteristics. First, it can be replaced by independent relevance than the weak correlation between strong independent border. Famous de Finetti theorems support this. The theorem says, a set of interchangeable random variables if and only if one of the parameters under the given conditions, they can be expressed as a set of conditions that mixture of random variables. This gives a set of interchangeable random variables a multi-level representation. From a distribution of a parameter, then this parameter, independent random variables drawn from a distribution group. Second, through the introduction of technology to simplify the calculation of latent variable, such as the expectation-maximization algorithm and more generalized data expansion technology that is based on this idea. Specifically, some complex, such as t-distribution, Laplace distribution can be represented by a Gaussian scale mixture to simplify calculations. Third, itself may have some latent variable to explain the physical meaning, this application meets the scene. For example, latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model, implicit variable has a certain theme.

The first example is the underlying data model, it is a multilevel model. As an extension of probabilistic graphical models, implicit data model is one of the most important methods of multivariate data analysis. Latent variable has three important characteristics. First, it can be replaced by independent relevance than the weak correlation between strong independent border. Famous de Finetti theorems support this. The theorem says, a set of interchangeable random variables if and only if one of the parameters under the given conditions, they can be expressed as a set of conditions that mixture of random variables. This gives a set of interchangeable random variables a multi-level representation. From a distribution of a parameter, then this parameter, independent random variables drawn from a distribution group. Second, through the introduction of technology to simplify the calculation of latent variable, such as the expectation-maximization algorithm and more generalized data expansion technology that is based on this idea. Specifically, some complex, such as t-distribution, Laplace distribution can be represented by a Gaussian scale mixture to simplify calculations. Third, itself may have some latent variable to explain the physical meaning, this application meets the scene. For example, latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model, implicit variable has a certain theme.

Machine learning: statistics and calculation of love

Laten Dirichlet Allocation

The second example, we’ll look at multi-level Bayesian models. At the time of MCMC sampling estimation, hyper-parameter always needs to be human given at the top of, naturally, convergence of MCMC algorithm is dependent on these given the hyper-parameters, if the selection of these parameters do not have a good experience, then a possible we add a layer, layer, the more hyper-parameter dependence will decline.

Machine learning: statistics and calculation of love

Hierarchical Bayesian Model

The third example, deep learning is contained in multiple ideas. If all nodes of all the flat, then all connections, is a fully connected graph. Depth of the CNN network you can connect as a structure of regularization. Regularization theory is a very central idea of statistical learning. CNN and RNN is the depth of two neural network models, respectively, are mainly used in image processing and natural language processing. Studies have shown that hierarchical structure has a stronger ability to learn.

Machine learning: statistics and calculation of love

Deep Learning

2. adaptation (Adaptive)

We adapt to the technical ideas, we went through several examples of this role. Cath Kidston note 3 cases

First example is adaptive importance sampling techniques. Importance sampling method can often improve the performance of sampling, while the Adaptive important sampling performance further improved.

The second example, Adaptive selection. Given a matrix a, we want to select some columns of a matrix c, and then use CC^+A to approximate the original matrix a, and hope that the approximation error as small as possible. This is an NP hard problem. In fact, through an adaptive approach, produced very small part of the C_1, thus constructing a residual, by this definition of a probability distribution, then with probability and then pick the part of C_2, composition c C_1 and C_2 together.

A third example, is adaptive random iterated algorithm. Consider a regularization of the empirical risk minimization problem, when training data very much, batch calculations can be very time-consuming, so usually in a random way. Stochastic gradient or random dual gradient algorithm can get an unbiased estimate of the parameters. Through adaptive technology can reduce the variance of the estimate.

The fourth example, is Boosting method. Adaptive adjustment weights of each sample, specifically, the improvement the wrong sample of weight, reduce the sample weights.

3. the average (Averaging)

In fact, boosting contains on average, that is, I want to discuss the technical ideas. Simply put, boosting is integrated with a set of weak classifiers, forming a strong classifier. The first benefit is that you can reduce the risk of fitting. Second, you can reduce the risk of falling into local. Third, you can extend the hypothesis space. Bagging is also a classical ensemble learning algorithm, and it divided into several groups of training data and training model in the small data sets, respectively, through a combination of these models to the strong classifiers. This is a two-level integrated learning.

Machine learning: statistics and calculation of love

Classic Anderson acceleration technology is the average so as to accelerate convergence. Specifically, it is a process of stacking, this stacking process obtained by solving a residual error least-weighted portfolio. The benefits of this technology, it is not too much calculation, often can also make the numerical iteration becomes more stable.

Another example of using the average is distributed computing. Many cases of distributed computing are not synchronized, asynchronous, asynchronous to do the time? The simplest are separate, and at some point the average of all results, which was distributed to each worker, and then run independently, and so on. It’s like a warm boot process.

As we have seen, these ideas are usually grouped together, such as boosting model. Adaptive multistage, peace of our thinking is straightforward, but it is also very useful.

New cancer therapies put a band aid would be nice

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A few days ago, MIT scientists have developed a new chip, to release the drugs directly target tumor sites, combined with the gene and light therapy, effective against tumor “dimension” attack.             This three-pronged approach to treat not only cancer, but also can effectively avoid the side-effects of systemic therapy for the body, prevention of recurrence and metastasis of cancer.

According to the introduction, the new chip is the main principle of triple therapy: chip includes a rod of gold Nanorods. Near-infrared radiation can cause the material to become hot, thermal ablation, or destruction of tumors. In addition, these Nanorods are equipped with chemotherapy drugs. Nano-Rod gets hot, these drugs will be released, targeting the tumor and the surrounding cells.

In addition, this “band-aid” also includes a gold nanoparticles, their role is important in the inhibition of colorectal cancer-causing genes. YSL Galaxy S5 Case

At present, this technology has been successfully conducted testing in colorectal cancer in mice, and cancer recurrence rate of 40% relative to the control group, using patch in the experimental group did not have a recurrence. 

YSL Galaxy S5 Case

Researcher Natalie Artzi said, want to use this technology in a larger model experiments, even with colonoscopy for cancer diagnosis. YSL Galaxy S5 Case

This patch is now can be used in some early cancer treatment, or to shrink the tumor before surgery, is a minimally invasive treatment method.

Microsoft will spend 2 5 billion to build its largest data center

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Microsoft will spend $ 2.5 billion to build its largest data center

United States Seattle time on July 22, according to foreign media reports, Microsoft will spend $ 152.5 billion in West Des Moines, Iowa to build 1.7 million square feet of data center, and cloud services to support its growing business.

DVF iPhone 5

This will be since 2008, Microsoft set up its third data center, will make up the company in the largest data centers across the United States. West Des Moines said the three data centers will total 3.5 billion dollars, only has a population of 64,000 West Des Moines will be derived from the new data center, at least US $ 300 million revenue. Iowa data center is mainly for the United States providing services in the central region, construction work will begin next spring.

This Microsoft continues to expand its data centers in reason. Microsoft’s fourth-quarter earnings July 19 showed that Microsoft “smart cloud” revenues from $ 7% to $ 6.7 billion, core product Azure cloud operating income grew by 102%. Cloud computing business now has revenue of one-third are shares of Microsoft and its main engine of growth.

Microsoft has built 26 data centers, and another 8 in the plan. In China, respectively in Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong, setting up a data center, respectively, for support of Azure services in Northern and Eastern China and East Asia.

Microsoft will spend $ 2.5 billion to build its largest data center

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How to quickly build a complete mobile broadcast system

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Lei feng’s network (search for “Lei feng’s network” public attention) by writer Jiang Hai, interesting product Director, broadcast industry veteran.

Mobile broadcast industry hot over a long period of time, through the integration of and industry, thus becoming the industry with infinite possibilities. There are three main reasons:

First, the Live Mobile UGC production mode is more obvious than the PC end of the broadcast, all devices, anytime, anywhere, and fully comply with the principle of the openness of the Internet age, can stimulate more people to create and disseminate high quality content.

Second, network bandwidth and speed gradually increased network costs are gradually coming down, provides an excellent development environment for mobile broadcasting. Text, sound, video, games and other mobile broadcast, to create a richer user experience. Live access as an SDK to their application, such as after-school tutoring in education can be carried out in the form of live business, electrical contractor can use broadcast enable users to select products and promote sales.

Third, an VR/AR technology combines mobile broadcast live to the future of the industry as a whole to provide new space for development. VR/AR live to put users on the spot, driving anchor closer to the real interaction with the audience, greatly enhance the platform’s user engagement.

Now, technology and traffic advantages of Internet practitioners are reluctant to miss a broadcast outlet, how to quickly build a broadcasting system became a concern of the, I would like to share my experience. I work on a live product developers, our products in order to quickly catch up with the market, using the cloud service providers that live SDK.

Practitioners are aware, a complete broadcast product should include the following steps: push end (collection, processing, coding, flow before), server-side processing (transcoding, record, screenshot, yellow), player (laliu, decode, render), interactive systems (systems, chat rooms, gifts like). I may one by one about a Live SDK in various areas of work.

Push, mobile broadcast stream-side needs to do what?

Live push end anchor end, mainly by cellphone cameras capture video, audio and microphone data acquisition data, after a series of preprocessing, encoding, packaging, and then pushed into the CDN for distribution.

How to quickly build a complete mobile broadcast system?

1, collect

Live Mobile SDK collection directly through the mobile phone camera and microphone audio and video data. Among them, video sampling data using RGB or YUV format, the audio sample data in PCM format. Collected volumes of the original audio and video are very large, requiring compression technology to improve transmission efficiency.

2, pre-treatment

In this session dealt mainly with beauty, watermarks, blur effects. Standard facial features is almost live. Our research found that too many case because there is no facial features discarded using. The nation puts, all broadcast must have a watermark and playback retained for more than 15 days.

Beauty is actually through algorithms to identify images of the skin, skin color adjustments. By comparing the color to find the skin area, can make color adjustments, add white layers or adjust the transparency for the whitening effect. In terms of beauty, the most famous GPUImage provides a wealth of effects, while support for iOS and Android, and support to write their own algorithms to achieve their best results. GPUImage built over more than 120 kinds of filter effects, adding filters simply call can just have a few lines of code.

3, coding

In order to facilitate the flow of mobile video, laliu, and stored, usually in video coding compression technology to reduce the size of video, now more commonly used video codec is H.264. In terms of audio, more commonly used are AAC encoding format, such as MP3, WMA are also options. Video coding compression greatly to improve the video storage and transmission efficiency, of course, when compressed video playback to be decoded.

Compared to H.264,2012 years before the birth of H.265 codec standards have improved considerably, did it only requires half the bandwidth to play the same video, below the 1.5Mbps network can transfer 1080p HD video. Like the H.265 aliyun, Jin Shanyun in pushing its own codec technology, with the development of broadcast and its dependence on bandwidth, H.265 has a tendency to replace H.264 codec technology.

Kenzo mini case

H264 and H265 module technical differences:

How to quickly build a complete mobile broadcast system?

In addition, the hardware coding has become the preferred solution for mobile live, soft-coding video decline very significantly above 720p. On the iOS platform hardware encoding compatibility is better, can be used directly, but on the Android platform, Media Codec encoder chip platform for different performance difference is very big, to fully realize the full platform-compatible cost is very high. KENZO iPad Mini Case

4, plug flow

Want to push the stream must also be using the transport protocol for audio and video data package, flow data. Common streaming protocol RTSP, RTMP, HLS, using the RTMP transmission delay is usually 1-3 seconds for mobile broadcast scenes of this real-time requirements are very high, RTMP has become the most commonly used mobile broadcast streaming protocols. Finally, a certain Qos algorithm to push the audio and video data stream to network fault, distributed through CDN. In a live scenario, network instability is very common, you need Qos guarantees under the instability of Internet users watch live experience, usually by setting the cache anchor and play ends, let the uniform rate. In addition, real-time changes in network conditions, dynamic bit rate and frame rate which is the most common strategy.

Of course, network transmission of all to do basic reality, providing flow of CDN service provider solution is the best choice. It is understood that aliyun is the only manufacturer that can self developed CDN cache servers, performance is guaranteed. Of course, most of the live platform can simultaneously access multiple video cloud service providers, so you can stream line cross, to optimize the flow video clusters and then can also improve the flow of live performance and stability.

Second, server-side processing what work needs to be done? Kenzo mini case

To adaptation of the Terminal and the platform, the server also needs to transcode the stream, such as support for RTMP, HLS, FLV format, such as streaming, supports all the way go multiple different network adapter and resolution of the Terminal.

1, screenshots, recording, watermark

Cloud service providers such as aliyun provides real-time transcoding technology, user flow rate is high (for example, 720P) real time into a lower definition (for example, 360P) flows to meet the broadcast needs. If want to build real-time transcoding systems, the cost is very high, an 8-core device can only go 10-Channel flow in real time, if a normal broadcast platforms have 1000 flow, you need 100 units, with later operation and maintenance costs, the company would have been too much for.

2, yellow

On April 14, 2016, the Ministry of culture has identified fighting fish, Tiger, YY, Panda TV, six room 9158, supplied with air, such as obscenity, violence, AIDS and abets crime Webcast platform, was included in the investigation in the list. Government control to broadcast industry to create a healthy ecosystem of virtuous development. This also means that in order to safely live product Kam-Wong became a necessary link, Huang was a mobile broadcast platform, using technical means to use the programme.

Yellow service available on the market has two main programmes:

First is a video screenshot, and then the picture is yellow, yellow results returned and score. Typical enterprise Ali (green screen), Atlas technologies, they now support directly into the video, after the analysis server returns a result. Usually a business system access yellow services, live streaming control based on Jian Huang results, such as cut off the live broadcast stream, block account.

Second is the combination and CDN, direct analysis of live streaming, recognition results into suspected pornography, erotic, sexy and normal operating system based on the recognition result directly control live streams. A typical enterprise is Viscovery, this scheme has the advantage of real-time guarantee good, the disadvantage is that you must deploy to a CDN, or his room, cost is relatively high.

There is also a one-stop live broadcasting solutions provider, their approach is that user in the console to configure the yellow service for each application, each live streams in real time audits. In the console, cloud yellow returns the results in real time, users can directly view porn live screenshots of the interface and violation, while the live stream can be controlled, cutting off questions live streaming. The service provider also provides the function of text messages, emails, and letters of the station to avoid missing any illegal video, causes losses to the platform, we used this way.

How to quickly build a complete mobile broadcast system?

Third, the player ends which work needs to be done?

On the player side how to do second, and guarantees in a live television picture and sound clarity and stability, flow, no live traffic Caton, this costs the player ends the service ends to do optimization, precise scheduling.

1, stream

Flow is actually inverse flow process. First of all access codes by playing end flows, standard RTMP stream format, HLS, FLV and so on. RTMP Adobe proprietary protocol, well supported by both open source software and open source libraries, librtmp library as open source, broadcast support flashPlayer can be very simple to play RTMP live broadcast delay is generally 1-3 seconds.

HLS is Apple’s streaming media transmission protocol based on HTTP, HTML5 can directly open play, through micro-credit, share of QQ software, users can also watch live, said mobile broadcast app,HLS streaming protocol must support, the disadvantage is that delay is usually greater than 10 seconds. FLV (HTTP-FLV) protocol is a protocol that uses HTTP protocol to transmit streaming media content, and don’t have to worry about is kidnapped by the Adobe patented, broadcast delay can do the same 1-3 seconds.

Differences in various streaming protocols:

How to quickly build a complete mobile broadcast system?

Live streaming technology we use cloud services provides three formats to meet the needs of different business scenarios, such as the high requirement for real-time or interactive needs of RTMP live streaming or FLV format; for playback, or cross-platform requirements, recommended the use of HLS. Of course, the three protocols can be used simultaneously, each used their own scenes.

2, decoding and rendering

After the video data stream gets packaged, must pass through a decoder, rendered in order to play on your player. It is the inverse process of encoding refers to extract raw data from the audio and video data. Described earlier and H.265 encode H.264 format is lossy compression, so after the extraction of the raw data rather than raw data, there is some loss of information. Therefore, the smallest case in the video encoding parameters by preserving the best of the original picture, became the core of the video company secrets.

Considered support for HD decoding will still want to select hardware decoding. Described earlier, iOS system because the hardware is a single, relatively closed, support better Android system because of platforms are very different, codec is fully compatible with all platforms require a lot of work to do.

Four, the interaction in a mobile broadcast system

Most common interaction in mobile live chat room (barrage), the point of praise, rewards and gifts, and real-time interactive system involving news and interactive technology is mostly used on IM function to achieve. For online more room, dodging message volume is very large, anchors and users actually read them, in order to ease server stress and need some necessary optimization in product strategy.

1, chat room

Barrage in mobile broadcast interactive is user and host the main way, is actually the IM chat room function. Chat and group chat function similarly, but chat room messages is not need to distribute to users who are not online, news also does not need to see the history, users enter the chat room to view the chat messages and group membership information. Faced with complex and changing network conditions, you also need to choose the nearest line of the corresponding operators based on user location room connected to the barrage of news services, barrage and more timely.

2, the present system

Standard with the present systems of most mobile broadcast platform, these platforms it is the main source of income. Gifts in the form of increased interaction between the user and the anchor, was the main reason for host platform-dependent.

Send and receive gifts on technology is also made of chat room interface, often using custom messages in the IM achieved when the user received or send gifts to custom graphics rendering message corresponds to the gift.

This is how we use third-party SDK Service summed up the Live experience, entrepreneurs and practitioners would like to help.

Teach you how to DIY a pair of Google on the tall Cardboard

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Teach you how to DIY a pair of Google on the tall Cardboard

A few days ago at the I/O Conference, Google shows a virtual reality box Cardboard, although it’s insignificant, but upon completion of the fully assembled, Cardboard can take advantage of a user’s Smartphone and built a pair of lenses, for a virtual reality experience.

 

The tray is now available at DODOcase, priced at $ 19.95. But Google also out Cardboard drawings on the Internet, we also have a DIY spirit to DIY a Cardboard.

DIY Cardboard, you first need to download drawings, drawings of the EPS file is used for laser cutting, we use the PDF file pages print.

After you download the drawings, you can type on the printer, and put it on a cardboard cutting and folding.

Raw materials needed include:

1. convex lenses (double convex lens): 25mm 40mm in diameter, can be found on the Internet;

2. wall: art supplies store to buy or use boxes already on hand. According to Google’s argument, you can call an oversized Pizza takeaway and then do with box Orz~

3. magic stick (optional, available rubber band instead)

4. a rubber band (fixed phone)

The 5.NFC tag (optional)

Google official website also referred to the need to prepare a round piece of Cardboard magnets when you knock glasses produced changes in the magnetic field, some phones can detect this change and act accordingly. But Google does not develop the application, so the magnet can temporarily bypass.

Here need to focus on the way a convex lens. If you follow the specifications in a treasure search Google tips, you will find information about: Moschino Galaxy S5 Cases

Teach you how to DIY a pair of Google on the tall Cardboard

Damn! The price might as well buy $19.95 original. Moschino S5

Let us see:

Gauss formula for convex Imaging is the 1/u+1/v=1/f (u for object distance v for which f is the focal length)

Set out depending on the distance of the human eye s with the maximum resolution of Imaging at photopic distance that is v=s

Gauss formula we can see u=FS/(s-f)

Moschino Galaxy S5 Cases

Lens magnifications: m =v/u=s (s-f)/FS= (s-f)/f

Tomorrow depending on the distances of 250mm,f=40mm, M= (250-40)/40=5.2

For a search and found 5 times or double convex lens 6 times (30mm in diameter), a few dollars can buy. Specific links does not come out, we can search.

Currently we have our own printing drawings (pictured) and orders to buy lenses online, after the arrival of DIY. If the results are good, then we’re going to customize a number of users can scan the QR code below or search in the app “geeks to buy” focus on subsequent progress.

Teach you how to DIY a pair of Google on the tall Cardboard

 NET geek shopping is Lei Feng (search for “Lei feng’s network”, public interest) under a new micro-signals (micro signal: Geeker-go), we can feel the Geek lifestyle and buy new products, provides users with Agency chop hand purchase of detoxification services.

Four in one Gospel of artifact gunner Hua Qiang bei

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Four in one Gospel of artifact gunner, Hua Qiang bei

Today there was a heavy rain still bashing does not destroy the enthusiasm of small machines. In the holiday the previous day, still in full swing, Hua Qiang bei, Xiao er found a strong cable, it could also charge the iPhone 5,iPhone 4 and the various Android phones, going out after a line is enough. Starbucks iPhone 6 Case

 

Four in one Gospel of artifact gunner, Hua Qiang bei

The data line is divided into three corresponding iPhone 5 Lightning interface and 30pin interface before, there is a common mircoUSB interface.

 

Four in one Gospel of artifact gunner, Hua Qiang bei

In texture and less compared to the original, but work still, above the standard.

 

Starbucks iPhone 6 Case

Four in one Gospel of artifact gunner, Hua Qiang bei

You can see from our testing, this wire can be charged to three phones at once, really is the artifact.

Four in one Gospel of artifact gunner, Hua Qiang bei

More magic 30pin interface is dual-use, which in turn could charge the Samsung P1000. Four-in-one, good function.

Four in one Gospel of artifact gunner, Hua Qiang bei

For Arsenal’s second, only one charger to feed the hungry, has a three-wire, mothers no longer have to worry about my charges. Unit 15, find appropriate?

Should be noted that this data cable only supports iPhone5 interface data transfer interface can only charge.

More observations, more intelligence, more anecdotes, Hua Qiang bei, and huaqiang North app.

Four in one Gospel of artifact gunner, Hua Qiang bei
Millet 4C

1365 votes

Millet 4C

In India millet 4I released version, which the machines will feature a 5-inch 1080p display, carrying the two A57 1.82GHz, four A53 1.44 Xiao long 8,086 core processor CPU core, run built-in 2GB/3GB memory and 16GB/32GB the body storage, equipped with 5 million pixels front + rear 13 million pixels lens combination. Starbucks iPhone 6 Case

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